alexa Thoracic Epidural Anaesthesia in Awake Upper Abdominal
ISSN: 2155-6148

Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research
Open Access

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Case Report

Thoracic Epidural Anaesthesia in Awake Upper Abdominal Surgery: Safety/Validity of Bromage’s Formula

Giovanni Consani1, Anna Nunziata2*, Gabriella Amorese1 and Ugo Boggi3

1Anestesia e Rianimazione I, AOUP, Via Paradisa 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy

2Anna Nunziata, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

3Ugo Boggi, Chirurgia generale e trapianti, AOUP, Via Paradisa 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy

*Corresponding Author:
Anna Nunziata
University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Tel: 050-996233
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: February 21, 2014; Accepted date: March 21, 2014; Published date: March 24, 2014

Citation: Consani G, Nunziata A, Amorese G, Boggi U (2014) Thoracic Epidural Anaesthesia in Awake Upper Abdominal Surgery: Safety/Validity of Bromage’s Formula. J Anesth Clin Res 5:391. doi: 10.4172/2155-6148.1000391

Copyright: © 2014 Consani G, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permitsunrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Objective: Subtotal gastrectomy has been successfully performed using thoracic epidural anaesthesia alone in two high-risk surgical patients. We describe these two cases by using the Bromage’s formula to calculate the required doses for a satisfactory segmental block. Case Report: Two high-risk surgical patients were scheduled for sub-total gastrectomy. They received thoracic epidural anaesthesia alone. An 18-gauge Tuohy needle was introduced at T8/T9 intervertebral space and the tip of the catheter was advanced 3 cm cephalad beyond the tip of the needle (T7/T6). Epidural anaesthesia was established with 0.5% levobupivacaine and sufentanil. The used doses were calculated according to the formula: x mg=(n. of dermatomes+6) ∙ mg/segment. Conclusions: Thoracic epidural anaesthesia provides optimal perioperative anaesthesia and analgesia after thoracic and major abdominal surgery and decreases postoperative morbidity and mortality, mainly by blocking sympathetic nerve fibers. An experienced operator can use it as the sole anesthetic technique in selected cooperative patients. The Bromage’s formula can be a useful clinical aid for the anaesthetist in the described settings.

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