alexa Threshold in Carcinogenicity of Genotoxic Carcinogens
ISSN: 2157-2518

Journal of Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
Open Access

Like us on:
OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations

700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Review Article

Threshold in Carcinogenicity of Genotoxic Carcinogens

Anna Kakehashi1*, Shoji Fukushima2, Min Wei1 and Hideki Wanibuchi1

1Department of Molecular Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan

2Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, Japan

*Corresponding Author:
Anna Kakehashi
Department of Molecular Pathology
Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine 1-4-3 Asahi-machi
Abeno-Ku, Osaka 545-8585, Japan
Tel: +81-6-6645-3737
Fax: +81-6-6646-3093
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: December 05, 2013; Accepted date: January 24, 2014; Published date: January 31, 2014

Citation: Kakehashi A, Fukushima S, Wei M, Wanibuchi H (2014) Threshold in Carcinogenicity of Genotoxic Carcinogens. J Carcinog Mutagen S3:006. doi: 10.4172/2157-2518.S3-006

Copyright: © 2014 Kakehashi A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Nowadays the idea of threshold in the carcinogenicity of chemical carcinogens has attracted interest in the field of carcinogenesis. With genotoxic agents there is considerable experimental evidence in support of the idea. Here, we report on the low dose carcinogenicity in rats observed with heterocyclic amines contained in cooked food, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3- methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino- 1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP), and contaminants of natural and manufactured food products, N-nitrosocompounds such as N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (DMN). The existence of a no-effect level for MeIQx carcinogenicity was confirmed in a medium-term rat liver bioassay. Treatment with increasing doses of MeIQx caused sequence of events to occur in the liver tissue: first, the induction of DNA-MeIQx adducts at low doses, then an increase of DNA 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation and lacI gene mutations, following by the development of preneoplastic lesions, glutathione S-transferase placental form positive (GST-P+) foci, at high doses. In another study, IQ was found to induce preneoplastic lesions in the rat liver at high doses, but lack any effect at low doses. Similarly, examination of carcinogenicity of a well-known colon genotoxic carcinogen PhIP have shown that application at low doses caused the formation of PhIP-DNA adducts, however, a surrogate marker of preneoplastic lesions in the colon, aberrant crypt foci, were detected only at high doses. In studies with N-nitrosocompounds, no GST-P+ foci in the rat livers was detected after the treatment at low doses, on the contrary, at high doses DEN and DMN induced their development. In conclusion, DNA-reactive genotoxic agents such as heterocyclic amines MeIQx, IQ and PhIP, and N-nitrosocompounds DEN and DMN were concluded to exert a threshold, at least practical, with respect to their carcinogenicity.


Share This Page

Additional Info

Loading Please wait..
Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version