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ISSN: 2161-0525

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
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Review Article

Time-Dependent Toxicity of Neonicotinoids and Other Toxicants:Implications for a New Approach to Risk Assessment

Henk A. Tennekes* and Francisco Sánchez-Bayo
Centre for Ecotoxicology, University of Technology Sydney, C/ Office of Environment & Heritage Department of Premier & Cabinet, NSW, 480 Weeroona Road, Lidcombe, NSW 2141, Australia
Corresponding Author : Henk A. Tennekes
Experimental Toxicology Services (ETS) Nederland BV
Frankensteeg 4, 7201 KN
Zutphen, The Netherlands
Tel: +31 575 545 500
Fax: +31 575 516 717
E-mail: [email protected]
Received November 14, 2011; Accepted December 05, 2011; Published December 07, 2011
Citation: Tennekes HA, Sánchez-Bayo F (2011) Time-Dependent Toxicity of Neonicotinoids and Other Toxicants: Implications for a New Approach to Risk Assessment. J Environment Analytic Toxicol S4:001. doi: 10.4172/2161-0525.S4-001
Copyright: © 2011 Tennekes HA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

A fundamental goal of toxicology is to determine safe levels of exposure to potentially poisonous substances for humans and the environment. Traditionally, safe levels have been estimated in laboratory toxicity bioassays by calculating the non-observable effect level (NOEL) of a chemical to a variety of organisms which are representative of certain taxa, i.e. mammals, birds, fish, crustaceans, algae, etc. There are, however, fundamental problems with the validity of this approach, both conceptual and statistical in nature, as indicated by Landis and Chapman and other authors. Thus, the outdated NOEL concept is being replaced by the no-effect concentration (NEC) level, which assumes that toxic chemicals do not have any effect on a population of organisms at very low concentrations.

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