To SHS Aspects other than those of Distributed Electrochemical Systems: From Current-Voltage Generators, Bio-cells, Batteries and Accumulators to Emission and Radiation Effects during SHS, etc
Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science (ISMAN), Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow 142432, Russia.
- *Corresponding Author:
- Filimonov IA
Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science (ISMAN)
Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka
Moscow 142432 Russia
Email: [email protected]
Received date: 16/06/2016; Accepted date: 23/06/2016; Published date: 30/06/2016
Recent Experimental and numerical studies on Combustion Synthesis of sulfides (CSS) in combination with the current Electronic Theory of a Solid Body (ETSB) lead us to the conclusion that the CSS chemical reactions are accompanied by electron transitions inside the sulfide valence zone, i.e., by transitions between the energy states of electrons localized in the valence zone. Such a conclusion only can explain the huge difference of energy of sulfur clusters affinity to an electron from the sulfur ionization potential which is available in literature. In addition to the interrelated aspects of CSS and ETSB We have presented also a small review of the existing literature on electrochemical sources of current and voltage (cells, accumulators).This review is devoted to distributed electrochemical systems and to a certain extent supplements some of the earlier reviews written (with the participation of the author) for the sources of electricity based on SHS solely. As the result, it has been made the conclusion about the advantage of the combustion based sources of electric current (pyrotechnic sources of electric current, PSEC) in comparison with the modern accumulators and bio-cells. The conditions of PSEC stable work are discussed. Incidentally we have also considered a few works concerning materials synthesis and nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are extremely popular now. The authors of the articles concerning such exotic objects use often in their publications unreasonable approximations or/and unchecked facts. In our opinion, the readers have to realize, where and what conclusions of similar authors deviate from the reality or from the classical results received earlier. To prove a solvency and a coherence of new results and representations is the business of innovators themselves, not of others or us. We just reveal some of their frequent shortcomings here. The comparison of the SHS systems on the specific electric energies generated during the synthesis has been also carried out. The energies appear to depend strongly on the composition, green density and the sample electric resistance. We have shown that in the SHS semiconductive systems of a loosed density (SLD) the generated specific electric energy is comparably less than that of a fish slope. Therefore, We have suggested new non-system units based on the specific electric energy generated by a fish slope as a useful measure for the SLD generated electric energies. It has appeared that the greatest quantity of specific electric energy is emitted by the loosed mixture of titanium with its nitride. Nevertheless, We have calculated that even the titanium nitride mixtures contain the overwhelming part of their energy in that of a chemical type (as the enthalpy of the green mixture formation). Both in compact and in SLD systems the specific standard enthalpies of formation of green components or products exceed significantly the electric energy released. Any source of electric voltage or electric current based on the combustion synthesis cannot be compared by the efficiency to electrolytic accumulators (their efficiency is close to unit by the definition). Therefore, We have also considered the general principles of association of such sources into batteries. It is well known that exoemission of electrons (EE) is an inevitable condition of any solid body existence in Nature. Nevertheless, there is still no clear understanding of high energetic EE caused by some of SHS processes. We have given the estimate confirming the possibility of high energetic electrons to be emitted during SHS, reveal the most perspective SHS systems in this relation, and simultaneously discuss the problems of chemically stimulated exoemission of electrons (CSEE) existing now in our opinion.