Transglutaminase 2 and Anti Transglutaminase 2 Autoantibodies in Celiac Disease and Beyond: Anti- Transglutaminase 2 Autoantibodies: Friends or EnemiesAaron Lerner1,2*, Sandra Neidhöfer2 and Torsten Matthias2
- *Corresponding Author:
- Aaron Lerner
Aesku. Kipp Institute
Mikroforum ring 2
Wendelsheim 55234, Germany
Email: [email protected]
Received date: September 03, 2015; Accepted date: November 04, 2015; Published date: November 09, 2015
Citation: Lerner A, Neidhöfer S, Matthias T (2015) Transglutaminase 2 and Anti Transglutaminase 2 Autoantibodies in Celiac Disease and Beyond: Anti- Transglutaminase 2 Autoantibodies: Friends or Enemies. Immunome Res 11:100. doi:10.4172/1745-7580.10000100
Copyright: © 2015 Lerner A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Tissue transglutaminase is a multifunctional enzyme, exerting intra and extracellular, enzymatic and nonenzymatic, Ca2+ dependent and independent functions. Its specific autoantibody, the anti transglutaminase2 autoantibody is multifunctional, affecting many of the enzyme activities. Most of them are due to loss of function, the minority being gain of function of the enzyme. No beneficial protective effects, but only pathogenic ones, were assigned to those celiac disease associated anti TG2 autoantibodies. Taken together, celiac antibodies could collectively promote small bowel intestinal or extraintestinal damage. Yet, most of the transglutaminase2 autoantibody activities where explored in vitro and ex-vivo, very few in animal model but none in vivo, in human. The celiac disease serum contains numerous antibodies, IgA-transglutaminase2 is only one of them and up till now, its differential role in celiac disease induction and maintenance is far from being unraveled. Unraveling them might open some new therapeutic strategies for celiac disease.