Transglutaminase 2 and Anti Transglutaminase 2 Autoantibodies in Celiac Disease and Beyond: TG2 Double-Edged Sword: Gut and Extraintestinal InvolvementAaron Lerner1,2*, Sandra Neidhöfer2 and Torsten Matthias2
- Corresponding Author:
- Aaron Lerner
Aesku. Kipp Institute
Mikroforum ring 2
Email: [email protected]
Received Date: September 03, 2015; Accepted Date: November 04, 2015; Published Date: November 09, 2015
Citation: Lerner A, Neidhöfer S, Matthias T (2015) Transglutaminase 2 and Anti Transglutaminase 2 Autoantibodies in Celiac Disease and Beyond: TG2 Double-Edged Sword: Gut and Extraintestinal Involvement. Immunome Res 11:101. doi:10.4172/1745-7580.10000101
Copyright: © 2015 Lerner A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Transglutaminase2 is a pleiotropic enzyme expressed ubiquitously and abundantly. It has been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, such as growth, differentiation, migration, signaling, cytoprotection, cell death and survival, wound healing, angiogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy. It operates intracellularly in multiple organelles, extracellularly and on cell surface. Apart from catalyzing post-translational modifications of proteins, by deamidation and cross-linking, it exercises G-protein, isomerase and kinase activities and non-enzymatic biological functions. Aberrant activation or deregulation of its functions is involved in numerous human disease. The most known one is celiac disease, but the present review will expand on extraintestinal entities. It plays a role in inflammatory, degenerative-age related, neurodegenerative, malignant, metabolic and hormonal, autoimmune and genetic conditions. Increased knowledge of its structure, functions and regulation in homeostatic phase, open the opportunity to design new therapeutic strategies to inhibit its malfunction in pathological situations.