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Treatment of Bipolar Disorder according to a Neural Network | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2157-7099

Journal of Cytology & Histology
Open Access

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Treatment of Bipolar Disorder according to a Neural Network

Felix-Martin Werner1,2* and Rafael Coveñas2

1Higher Vocational School of Elderly Care and Occupational Therapy, Euro Academy Pößneck, Pößneck, Thuringia, 07381, Germany

2Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic Systems (Lab. 14), Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y León (INCYL), University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Castilla-León,37007, Spain

*Corresponding Author:
Felix-Martin Werner
Neural Networks in Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases
University of Salamanca, Instituto de Neurociencias de Castilla y León (INCYL)
Laboratorio de Neuroanatomía de los Sistemas Peptidérgicos (Lab. 14)
c/ Pintor Fernando Gallego, 1, 37007-Salamanca, Spain
Tel: +34/923/29 44 00 ,Extension 1856
Fax: +34/923/29 45 49
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: July 29, 2015 Accepted Date: September 14, 2015 Published Date: September 16, 2015

Citation: Werner F, Coveñas R (2015) Treatment of Bipolar Disorder according to a Neural Network. J Cytol Histol 6:368. doi:10.4172/2157-7099.1000368

Copyright: © 2015 Werner F, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Here, we describe the alterations of excitatory neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline, acetylcholine), glutamate and GABA (a presynaptic inhibitory neurotransmitter) in the brain areas (brainstem, hypothalamus, hippocampus) involved in bipolar disorder. The coherence between the pituitary hypothalamicadrenocortical axis and the existing neurotransmitter alterations is pointed out. Neural networks are described in the concerned brain areas, including the neurotransmitters and the depending subreceptors, on which the prophylactic drugs exert their effects. A survey of the commonly used prophylactic drugs is also given.