Tumor Budding as a Useful Prognostic Indicator in Early Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Received Date: May 10, 2018 / Accepted Date: Jun 20, 2018 / Published Date: Jun 22, 2018
Tumor budding, defined as the presence of single cancer cells or small clusters of fewer than five cells at the tumor invasive front, has been reported to be an independent prognostic factor for several cancers together with margin status, depth of invasion, lymph vascular invasion, and lymph node metastasis. Distant metastasis and poor prognosis were significantly more common in the higher budding group. In this short review, we focused on the studies related to tumor budding in several cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC) and showed the association among the intensity of tumor budding, risk of lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis in OSCC is strongly supported by many studies. Moreover, arguments for the assessment of tumor budding, scoring system, stains to mark budding, specimens, and the association with epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) are also discussed.
Keywords: Tumor budding; Oral cavity; Squamous cell carcinoma; Prognostic indicator
Citation: Kirita T, Yamakawa N, Ueda N, Yagyuu T (2018) Tumor Budding as a Useful Prognostic Indicator in Early Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. J Cancer Sci Ther 10: 162-167. Doi: 10.4172/1948-5956.1000536
Copyright: © 2018 Kirita T, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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