alexa Tumor Vascular Interaction in Melanomas and Neurogenesis: A Review
ISSN: 2376-0427

Dermatology and Dermatologic Diseases
Open Access

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Previously: Journal of Pigmentary Disorders

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Review Article

Tumor Vascular Interaction in Melanomas and Neurogenesis: A Review

Bhanu Iyengar*
Pigment Cell Center, New Delhi, INDIA
Corresponding Author : Dr. Bhanu Iyengar
Iyengar Farm, Brijwasan Road, PO Kapashera
New Delhi-110037, India
Tel: 91-11-25063433
E-mail: [email protected]
Received May 09, 2014; Accepted June 06, 2014; Published June 08, 2014
Citation: Iyengar B (2014) Tumor Vascular Interaction in Melanomas and Neurogenesis: A Review. Pigmentary Disorders 1:112. doi:10.4172/2376-0427.1000112
Copyright: © 2014 Iyengar B. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 

Abstract

Background: Melanomas arise from multipotent neural crest derivative, the melanocytes. At the tumor-stroma interphase, melanoma cells show organized neural differentiation forming tumor-vascular complexes. The present study explores the sequence of neurogenesis from aurophilic radial glial like cells in relation to angiogenesis, utilizing the tumor-vascular-complex (TVC) as a 3D model. Methods: Serial frozen and paraffin sections stained with HE, reticulin-gold impregnation for aurophilia; dopa oxidase; immunopositivity for: neural differentiation (nestin, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), Neural Fibrillary Protein (NFP), synaptophysin); indoleamines: (serotonin and melatonin), catecholamines (dopamine (DA), Noradrenalin (NA), pigment; Dopa Oxidase (DO)); hormones: ((PRL), Prolactin; (HGH), Human Growth Hormone;) and mitosis. The pattern of neural differentiation in tumor-vascular-complexes (TVC) is assessed by positivity in layer1- layer 5 and cell counts in each layer of the perimantle zone (PMZ). Statistical Analysis: ANOVA: Kruskal-Wallis One Way Analysis of Variance; All Pairwise Multiple Comparison Procedures [Tukey Test]. [t-test or Mann-Whitney U- test]. Results: A TVC is formed during angiogenic tumor-vascular interaction. Nes +ve angiogenic tubes enter the tumor margins. Periluminar cells show aurophilia, and extend dendritic arbors into the outer layers of the mantle zone. Cells and dendritic processes in layer 1/ layer 2 show Nes, Auro and GFAP positivity. NFP and Syn positivity is seen in layer 4/ layer 5 with a transition zone between layer 2/ layer 3. As two layers accrue, a wave of mitotic activity is seen and cells acquire PRL and HGH and indoleamine positivity. Catecholamine positivity is in layer 4/ layer 5 thus establishing a polarity. Dopamine is positive in layer 3/ layer 4 coinciding with dopa-oxidase which peaks in layer 4 with NA, ACTH positivity in the outer layers is in association with pigmentation in layer 4/ layer 5. Discussion: Thus during tumor-vascular interaction, melanoma cells differentiate into aurophilic radial glial like cells, as during embryonic neurogenesis, Nes, a marker of multi-lineage progenitor cells, identifies them as MASC, which differentiate into neuronal cells. The angiogenic vessel confers polarity and an embryonal microenvironment in the perivascular mantle zone of the TVC, inducing aggressive melanoma cells to function as neuronal stem cells recapitulating neurogenesis of bio-aminergic cells. The cell cycle is orchestrated by the three pituitary hormones, PRL, HGH and ACTH. The expression of PRL and HGH is related to mitotic activity while ACTH and pigment indicate differentiated function.

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