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Unique Cytokine/Chemokine Signatures for HIV-1 and HCV Monoinfection versus Co-infection as Determined by the Luminex<sup>and#174;</sup> Analyses | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-9899

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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Unique Cytokine/Chemokine Signatures for HIV-1 and HCV Monoinfection versus Co-infection as Determined by the Luminex® Analyses

Saifur Rahman1, John E Connolly2, Sharron L Manuel1, Jihed Chehimi3, Luis J Montaner3 and Pooja Jain1*
1Drexel Institute for Biotechnology and Virology Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
2Singapore Immunology Network, Singapore, Institute of Biomedical Studies, Baylor University, Houston, TX, USA
3The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Corresponding Author : Pooja Jain
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Drexel Institute for Biotechnology and Virology Research
Drexel University College of Medicine
3805 Old Easton Road, Doylestown, PA 1890, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received December 08, 2010; Accepted January 04, 2011; Published January 07, 2011
Citation: Rahman S, Connolly JE, Manuel SL, Chehimi J, Montaner LJ, et al. (2011) Unique Cytokine/Chemokine Signatures for HIV-1 and HCV Mono-infection versus Co-infection as Determined by the Luminex® Analyses. J Clin Cell Immunol 2:104. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000104
Copyright: © 2011 Rahman S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Liver disease caused by HIV-1/HCV co-infection is characterized by the inflammation and cell-death. The coexistence of these two chronic viral infections also alters the cytokine production in vivo. The ability to visualize changes in cytokine networks with the onset and progression of disease or treatment is critical to advance our understanding of the immune response to pathogens. The recent Luminex® technology has revolutionized the simultaneous detection and quantitation of several cytokines and chemokines in clinical samples that are generally available in small quantities. We have applied this technology to analyze the plasma samples from patients who have either HIV-1 or HCV mono-infection or HIV-1/HCV co-infection and monitored the presence of 23 cytokines and chemokines. Of these, 8 (IFN-α2, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-15 and RANTES) cytokines were expressed at higher levels in the co-infected individuals. Interestingly, in case of HIV-1 mono-infected individuals, the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α were increased. Standard correlation clustering of the normalized data demonstrated unique plasma cytokine signatures for HIV-1/HCV co-infected individuals. These signatures were characterized not only by an up regulation of the aforementioned antiviral mediators but also by a marked down regulation in the chemokines Eotaxin and MIP-1α when compared to mono-infected individuals. Luminex®- based analyses have proven to be a powerful tool for therapeutic immunomonitoring, but may have an even greater impact in the discovery of the underlying immune response at all phases of infection. The study presented herein has potential to offer insight into the underlying mechanisms of immunopathogenesis of HIV-1/HCV co-infection.