alexa Unreported Aflatoxins and Hydroxylate Metabolites in Artisanal Oaxaca Cheese from Veracruz, Mexico | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2161-1009

Biochemistry & Analytical Biochemistry
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Research Article

Unreported Aflatoxins and Hydroxylate Metabolites in Artisanal Oaxaca Cheese from Veracruz, Mexico

Vargas-Ortiz M1,2, Carvajal-Moreno M1*, Hernández-Camarillo E1,3, Ruiz-Velasco S4 and Rojo-Callejas F5

1Laboratorio C-119 De Micotoxinas, Departamento de Botánica, Instituto de Biología, Ciudad Universitaria, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), CP 04510 CdMx, México.

2CONACYT-CIAD (Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo), Coordinación Culiacán. Carretera El Dorado Km 5.5, Col. Campo El Diez, Culiacán Sinaloa 80110, México.

3Instituto Tecnológico de Veracruz, Tecnológico Nacional de México, SEP, Calzada Miguel Angel de Quevedo 2779, Col. Formando Hogar, CP 91897 H. Veracruz, Ver., México.

4Departamento de Probabilidad y Estadística, Instituto de Investigaciones en Investigaciones y en Sistemas, Ciudad Universitaria, UNAM, CP 04510 CdMx, México.

4Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química, Ciudad Universitaria, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), CP 04510 CdMx, México.

*Corresponding Author:
Magda Carvajal-Moreno
Laboratorio C-119 de Micotoxinas
Departamento de Botánica
Instituto de Biología, Ciudad Universitaria
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)
Coyoacán. CP 04510 CdMx, México
Tel: +(5255) 56 22 91 38
Fax: +(5255) 5550 1760
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: March 09, 2017; Accepted Date: June 12, 2017; Published Date: June 15, 2017

Citation: Vargas-Ortiz M, Carvajal-Moreno M, Hernández-Camarillo E, Ruiz-Velasco S, Rojo-Callejas F (2017) Unreported Aflatoxins and Hydroxylate Metabolites in Artisanal Oaxaca Cheese from Veracruz, Mexico. Biochem Anal Biochem 6: 322. doi: 10.4172/2161-1009.1000322

Copyright: © 2017 Vargas-Ortiz M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Aflatoxins (AFs) are toxic secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. The fungi produce these AFs in cereals, oilseeds and spices. AFs have damaging effects on all organisms, including humans, and their symptoms can be classified as acute (vomiting, hemorrhage and death) or chronic (immunodepression, Reye syndrome, Kwashiorkor, teratogenesis, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and various cancers). The common AFs (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) are metabolized in the liver or by microbes that produce hydroxylates (AFM1, AFM2, AFP1) and aflatoxicol (AFL), which makes them soluble in water. This means that AFs can be excreted in fluids such as milk or urine, and AFs are not destroyed in the process of making cheese. Other AFs can also be excreted in milk, but they have not been reported until now. The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify the AFs present in 30 samples of artisanal Oaxaca-type cheese sold in the City of Veracruz. The average concentrations of AFs detected in the 30 samples of artisanal cheese were AFB1 (11.2 ng g-1) in 77% (23/30); AFL (19.1 ng g-1) in 70% (21/30); AFG2 (0.2 ng g-1) in 63% (19/30); AFM1 (3.0 ng g-1) in 53% (16/30); AFP1 (0.1 ng g-1) in 50% (15/30); AFM2 (0.2 ng g-1) in 20% (6/30); AFG1 (0.03 ng g-1) in 13% (4/30); and a trace amount of AFB2 (

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