alexa Urinary Thrombomodulin Levels Were Significantly Higher Following Occupational Exposure to Chemicals, In The Presence of Dipstick Protein, But Not in the Presence of Dipstick Blood
ISSN: 0974-8369

Biology and Medicine
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Research Article

Urinary Thrombomodulin Levels Were Significantly Higher Following Occupational Exposure to Chemicals, In The Presence of Dipstick Protein, But Not in the Presence of Dipstick Blood

Mark W. Ruddock1, Ricardo de Matos Simoes2, Declan O’Rourke3, Brian Duggan4, Michael Stevenson5, Hugh F. O’Kane6, David Curry6, Funso Abogunrin6, Frank Emmert-Streib2, Cherith N. Reid1Perry Maxwell2, Ken Arthur2, Michael Mallon2, Gail Carson2, Grace Kennedy2 and Kate E. Williamson2*

1Randox Laboratories Ltd., Molecular Biology, County Antrim, Northern Ireland

2Centre for Cancer Research & Cell Biology, Queens University Belfast, Northern Ireland

3Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast

4Department of Urology, South Eastern Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast

5Centre for Medical Education, Queen’s University, Belfast

6Department of Urology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast

*Corresponding Author:
Dr. Kate Williamson
Centre for Cancer Research & Cell Biology
Queens University Belfast
97 Lisburn Road, Belfast
County Antrim, Northern Ireland, BT9 7BL
Tel: +44(0) 2890 972790
Fax: +44 (0) 2890 972776
E-mail:[email protected]

Received date: October 01, 2015; Accepted date: November 16, 2015; Published date: November 23, 2015

Citation: Ruddock MW, Simoes RM, Rourke DO, Duggan B, Stevenson M, et al. (2015) Urinary Thrombomodulin Levels Were Significantly Higher Following Occupational Exposure to Chemicals, In The Presence of Dipstick Protein, But Not in the Presence of Dipstick Blood. (A Study in Kashmir, North India). Biol Med (Aligarh) 8:260. doi:10.4172/0974-8369.1000260

Copyright: © 2015 Ruddock MW, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 

Abstract

Currently, there are no biomarkers which can identify patients with an increased risk of developing urothelial cancer as a result of occupational chemical exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between final diagnosis and 22 biomarkers measured in urine, serum and plasma collected from 156 hematuric patients. Fourteen of the 80 patients (17.5%) with urothelial cancer and 13/76 (17.1%) of the controls were deemed to have a history of chemical exposure. We applied Fisher's exact tests to explore associations between chemical exposure and final diagnosis, and tumor stage and grade, where applicable; ANOVA and t-test to compare age across patients with and without chemical exposure; and Zelen’s exact test to evaluate relationships across final diagnosis, chemical exposure and smoking. Following pre-selection of biomarkers using Lasso, we identified differentially expressed biomarkers across patients with and without chemical exposure using Welch’s t-test. Using a one-sided t-test and considering multiple testing using FDR, we observed that TM levels in urine were significantly higher in samples from patients with a history of chemical exposure regardless of their diagnosis as control or urothelial cancer (one-sided t-test, pUC = 0.014 and pCTL = 0.043); in the presence of dipstick protein and when urinary pH levels ≤ 6 (p = 0.003), but not in the presence of dipstick blood (p = 0.115). Urothelial cancer patients with a history of chemical exposure were significantly younger (64.1 years) than those without chemical exposure (70.2 years) (one-sided t-test p-value = 0.012); and their tumors were higher grade (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.008). There was a strong association between a history of chemical exposure and smoking in urothelial cancer patients (Zelen’s exact test; p = 0.025). Elevated urinary thrombomodulin levels could have the potential to identify chemical exposure in hematuric patients at highrisk of developing urothelial cancer

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