alexa Utilizing the Color Figure Mazes Test to Assess Executive Functioning while Screening for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in HIV-1 Seropositive Spanish-Speaking Adults
ISSN 2155-6113

Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Open Access

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Research Article

Utilizing the Color Figure Mazes Test to Assess Executive Functioning while Screening for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in HIV-1 Seropositive Spanish-Speaking Adults

Kimberly Smith1, Alexander Joseph Steiner1,2, Waguih William IsHak1,3, Jessica Acosta2, Bryce Erich1, Lou D’Elia3, Paula Cedillo1,2 and Enrique López1,3*

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles CA, USA

2Department of Psychology, CSPP-Alliant International University, Los Angeles, CA, USA

3Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles CA, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Enrique López
Assistant Professor
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral
Neurosciences at Cedars Sinai Medical Center
Thalians Health Center 8730 S Alden Dr.
Room E-142, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
Tel: 310-993-8451
Fax: 310-423-8397
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: August 04, 2014; Accepted date: September 22, 2014; Published date: October 04, 2014

Citation: Smith K, Steiner AJ, IsHak WW, Acosta J, Erich B, et al. (2014) Utilizing the Color Figure Mazes Test to Assess Executive Functioning while Screening for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in HIV-1 Seropositive Spanish-Speaking Adults. J AIDS Clin Res 5:357. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000357

Copyright: © 2014 Smith K, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Objective: Spanish-speaking individuals are disproportionately impacted by HIV in the United States. There are limited selections of valid and reliable measures to accurately assess the presence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) with this population. The dearth of available measures places this vulnerable population at risk for receiving assessments that utilizes measures that are not adequately translated, modified, normed, or culturally sensitive. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical utility and efficacy of the Color Figure Mazes (CFM), a nonverbal measure of attention, concentration, working memory and executive functioning, to screen for deficits that characterize a HAND profile in Spanish-speaking adults. We hypothesized the HAND group would perform significantly worse than the non-HAND group and control group as the CFM tasks increased with difficul-ty. Methods: To explore the prevalence of HAND in Spanish-speaking individuals, we studied 100 HIV-1 seropositive participants (47 HAND; 53 non-HAND) who met criteria for the Center for Disease Control classification system category B or C and 27 HIV-seronegative controls. They were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychosocial battery to assess for HAND. Results: While controlling for Pre-Morbid Intellectual Functioning, ANCOVA revealed that the HAND group performed significantly worse than the non-HAND group and HIV-seronegative control group on measures that placed a greater demand on skills requiring executive functioning including set-shifting over short periods of time, mental flexibility, and higher order thought processes. Conclusion: Our findings contribute to previous research by demonstrating that a brief, culturally sensitive measure, such as the CFM can help detect HAND in vulnerable populations, as is the case with Spanish speakers in the Unit-ed States. Furthermore, our results indicate that the CFM is sensitive in detecting executive function deficits associ-ated with HAND and may be culturally appropriate to use with HIV-seropositive Spanish-speaking adults.


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