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ISSN: 2161-1068

Mycobacterial Diseases
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Review Article

Vaccines against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: Exploring Alternate Strategies to Combat a Near-perfect Pathogen

Lionel G Filion1*, Mohammed N Al-Ahdal2 and Jason A Tetro3

1Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Canada

2Department of Infection and Immunity, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Saudi Arabia

3Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Canada

Corresponding Author:
Lionel G Filion, Ph.D
Faculty of Medicine
Emerging Pathogens Research Centre
Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology
University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Rd.
Ottawa, ON K1H 8M5, Canada
Tel: 613-562-5800 (8308)
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: March 12, 2013; Accepted Date: March 14, 2013; Published Date: March 22, 2013

Citation: Filion LG, Al-Ahdal MN, Tetro JA (2013) Vaccines against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: Exploring Alternate Strategies to Combat a Near-perfect Pathogen. J Mycobac Dis S1:003. doi:10.4172/2161-1068.S1-003

Copyright: © 2013 Filion LG, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Tuberculosis is a significant threat to human health, infecting nearly one third of the world’s population and causing over a million deaths per year. The need for an effective vaccine against tuberculosis is apparent however, the current vaccine has not been successful neither in the prevention nor recovery from infection. The pathogenesis of the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been extensively studied. The mechanisms of immune evasion and modulation that enable persistence of infection through subclinical latency and eventually active tuberculosis have been partially described. Many of these mechanisms are directly antagonistic to the intended benefit of vaccines, leaving a conundrum that has yet to be resolved. This review will first examine the nature of tuberculosis pathogenesis in the context of the immune response and outline the varied processes utilized by the bacterium to cause modulation. The review will also investigate other vaccination options that may overwhelm these microbial mechanisms or avert them entirely, allowing for the engagement of the immune response and clearance of the bacterium.

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