Verification of Meso-Zeaxanthin in Fish
- *Corresponding Author:
- John M Nolan
Macular Pigment Research Group
Vision Research Centre, Carriganore House
Waterford Institute of Technology
West Campus, Carriganore
Tel: +353 51834074
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: May 30, 2014; Accepted: July 24, 2014; Published Date: August 01, 2014
Citation: Nolan JM, Beatty S, Meagher KA, Howard AN, Kelly D, et al. (2014) Verification of Meso-Zeaxanthin in Fish. J Food Process Technol 5:335. doi:10.4172/2157-7110.1000335
Copyright: © 2014 Nolan JM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background/Objectives: The carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) accumulate in the central retina (the macula), where they are collectively known as macular pigment (MP). MP has been shown to enhance visual function in both diseased and non-diseased retinae, and therefore an understanding and confirmation of, the origins of these carotenoids is needed. Studies have shown that L and Z are present in many foodstuffs found in a typical Western diet (e.g. spinach, kale, peppers, yellow corn and eggs). It has been shown that MZ is generated from L in the primate retina and earlier reports suggested that MZ was present in some fish species. Recently, however, one research group reported that MZ is not present in fish and suggested that the earlier reports showing MZ in these marine species were a methodological artefact. The current study was designed to investigate the reason for the contradiction, and test for the presence of MZ in fish and some other foods. Methods: Raw fruits, vegetables and fish were extracted for carotenoid analysis by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: MZ was not detected in any of the fruits or vegetable tested in our study. However, using retention time matching, absorption spectrum comparison, and sample spiking, we verified the presence of MZ in salmon skin, sardine skin, trout skin and trout flesh. Conclusion: This study confirmed the presence MZ in nature, and in the human food chain.