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Vertical Distribution of NO<sub>2</sub> in an Urban Area: Exposure Risk Assessment in Children | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2165-784X

Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering
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Research Article

Vertical Distribution of NO2 in an Urban Area: Exposure Risk Assessment in Children

Cheong KWD1, Tham KW1, Balasubramanian R2 and Kalaiarasan M3*
1Department of Building, National University of Singapore, Singapore
2Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore
3School of Building and Development, BCA Academy (Building and Construction Authority of Singapore), Singapore
Corresponding Author : Mano Kalaiarasan
School of Building and Development
BCA Academy, 200 Braddell Road
Tel: 65-62489979
Fax: 65-62580558
E-mail: [email protected]
Received February 11, 2012; Accepted May 28, 2012; Published May 30, 2012
Citation: Cheong KWD, Tham KW, Balasubramanian R, Kalaiarasan M (2012) Vertical Distribution of NO2 in an Urban Area: Exposure Risk Assessment in Children. J Civil Environ Eng 2:115. doi:10.4172/2165-784X.1000115
Copyright: © 2012 Cheong KWD, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


The aim of the study is to perform a potential health risk assessment on children in contracting respiratory symptoms due to inhaling traffic-generated nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in two typical high-rise naturally-ventilated residential building designs (slab and point block) located close to busy major expressways in a tropical climate. A total of six buildings were selected for the study. Ogawa passive samplers (PS-100) were used for NO2 measurements in each building over a period of 5 weeks during the predominant monsoon seasons. Health risk assessment showed children residing at the mid floors of the buildings had the highest health risk regardless of their age .i.e. infants, children (1 year and under), children (8-10 years)compared to those residents residing at the high and low floors. This was expected since the highest concentration of traffic-generated NO2 concentration occurred at the mid floors of the buildings. In a typical floor, children (1 year and under) had the highest followed by children (8-10 years) whilst new born infants had the least potential health risk in contracting respiratory symptoms. The reason might could be new born infants obtain passive immunity from their mothers and in children (1 year and under), the passive immunity fall during this age period as they are developing their very own immunity against respiratory symptoms. Children (8-10 years) had the their potential health risk to respiratory symptoms in between the other two age groups as these children could have developed more immunity against respiratory symptoms compared to the children (1 year and under) but less immunity compared to infants. Based on the mean overall HR values, children living in a slab block has about 1.27 times more risk in contracting a respiratory symptoms due to NO2 inhalation compared to those living in a point block.


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