alexa Virological and Immunological Long-Term Outcome of Huma
ISSN 2155-6113

Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Open Access

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Research Article

Virological and Immunological Long-Term Outcome of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infected Children Treated before One Year and after Two Years of Age in a Resource-Limited Setting of South Africa

Jean-Christophe Beghin1,2*, Jean Ruelle1,3, Patrick Goubau1,3, Malini Krishna4, Leslie Hall5and Dimitri Van der Linden6

1AIDS Reference Laboratory, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

2Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Hôpital Universitaire Des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussels, Belgium

3Department of Microbiology, Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Brussels, Belgium

4HIV Clinic, Edendale Hospital, Edendale, South Africa

5Department of General Pediatrics, Edendale Hospital, Edendale, South Africa

6Department of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and General Paediatrics, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium

*Corresponding Author:
Jean-Christophe Beghin
AIDS Reference Laboratory
Université Catholique de Louvain Av. Hippocrate 54
bte B1.54.05, 1200 Bruxelles, Belgium
Tel: +3227645492
Fax: +3227649440
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: April 20, 2017; Accepted date: April 27, 2017; Published date: May 04, 2017

Citation: Beghin JC, Ruelle J, Goubau P, Krishna M, Hall L, et al. (2017) Virological and Immunological Long-Term Outcome of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infected Children Treated before One Year and after Two Years of Age in a Resource-Limited Setting of South Africa. J AIDS Clin Res 8:690. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000690

Copyright: © 2017 Beghin JC, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 

Abstract

Introduction: Benefits of early Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapy (HAART) to reduce infant mortality and morbidity have been demonstrated in resource-limited and rich settings. However, immunovirological data collected in Sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. This study describes the long-term outcome of South African children who started HAART before one year of age (Early Starters Cohort or ESC) and compare their immunovirological outcomes to children who started their therapy after two years of age (Late Starters Cohort or LSC). Immunovirological results will be compared in order to evaluate the long-term non-inferiority of early treatment initiation. Methods: Fifty-five children were included in the ESC (mean follow-up period 7.9 years) and 96 children were included in the LSC (mean follow-up period 6.3 years). Children from the ESC and the LSC were subdivided into three subgroups according to CD4+% at HAART initiation (<15%, between 15-24% and ≥ 25%). Results: All children included in the ESC achieved normal CD4% at least one’s during the entire follow-up period, contrary to the LSC where 89.6% children achieved normal CD4% (p=0.014). Furthermore, mean CD4+% became higher in the ESC six years after treatment initiation. Children with CD4+% between 15 and 24% at HAART initiation reached higher CD4+% in the ESC, three years after treatment initiation. The proportion of children who experienced virological failure (>100 cp/ml) was comparable in both cohorts but persistent undetectable viral load (<50 cp/ml) after initial virological suppression was more frequent in the ESC (p=0.008). Finally, the proportion of children with detectable viral loads (50 to 1000 cp/ml) at least one time during the entire follow-up period was higher in the LSC (p=0.0022). Conclusion: HAART appeared highly effective in terms of immunovirological outcomes both in children treated before one and after two years of age. The results of this study demonstrate that early treated children more often achieved normal CD4+%, tended to have higher mean CD4+% and more sustained virological suppression. These results encourage the current international recommendations to initiate HAART as soon as possible in RLS.

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