alexa Vitamin C Transporters, Recycling and the Bystander Effect in the Nervous System: SVCT2 versus Gluts | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2157-7633

Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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Review Article

Vitamin C Transporters, Recycling and the Bystander Effect in the Nervous System: SVCT2 versus Gluts

Francisco Nualart1*, Lauren Mack1, Andrea García1, Pedro Cisternas1, Ernesto R. Bongarzone2, Marjet Heitzer1, Nery Jara1, Fernando Martínez1, Luciano Ferrada1, Francisca Espinoza1, Victor Baeza1, Katterine Salazar1*

1Center for Advanced Microscopy CMA BIO-BIO, Neurobiology and Stem cell Laboratory, Concepcion University, Chile

2Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois Chicago, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Katterine Salazar
Center for Advanced Microscopy CMA BIO-BIO
Neurobiology and Stem cell Laboratory
Concepcion University, Chile
Tel: +56-041-2661104
E-mail: [email protected]
 
Francisco Nualart
Center for Advanced Microscopy CMA BIO-BIO
Neurobiology and Stem cell Laboratory
Concepcion University, Chile
Tel: +56-041-2203479
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: April 22, 2014; Accepted date: May 16, 2014; Published date: May 19, 2014

Citation: Nualart F, Mack L, García A, Cisternas P, Bongarzone ER, et al. (2014) Vitamin C Transporters, Recycling and the Bystander Effect in the Nervous System: SVCT2 versus Gluts. J Stem Cell Res Ther 4:209. doi:10.4172/2157-7633.1000209

Copyright: © 2014 Nualart F, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient in the human diet; its deficiency leads to a number of symptoms and ultimately death. After entry into cells within the central nervous system (CNS) through sodium vitamin C transporters (SVCTs) and facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), vitamin C functions as a neuromodulator, enzymatic cofactor, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger; it also stimulates differentiation. In this review, we will compare the molecular and structural aspects of vitamin C and glucose transporters and their expression in endothelial or choroid plexus cells, which form part of the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, respectively. Additionally, we will describe SVCT and GLUT expression in different cells of the brain as well as SVCT2 distribution in tanycytes and astrocytes of the hypothalamic region. Finally, we will describe vitamin C recycling in the brain, which is mediated by a metabolic interaction between astrocytes and neurons, and the role of the “bystander effect” in the recycling mechanism of vitamin C in both normal and pathological conditions.

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