Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardio-Metabolic Risk in a North Indian Community with Highly Prevalent Type 2 DiabetesTimothy R Braun, Latonya F Been, Piers R Blackett and Dharambir K Sanghera*
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dharambir K Sanghera
Associate Professor of Pediatrics
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Genetics
University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
940 Stanton L. Young Blvd., Rm. D317 BMSB Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date June 22, 2012; Accepted date August 25, 2012; Published date August 29, 2012
Citation: Braun TR, Been LF, Blackett PR, Sanghera DK (2012) Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardio-Metabolic Risk in a North Indian Community with Highly Prevalent Type 2 Diabetes. J Diabetes Metab 3: 213 doi: 10.4172/2155-6156.1000213
Copyright: © 2012 Braun TR, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to examine serum vitamin D status in a population of Punjabi ancestry from Northern India with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and evaluate the effects of 25(OH)D levels on cardio-metabolic traits.
Research design and methods: We assessed cardiovascular risk factors and 25(OH)D levels in 1,765 participants (887 T2D cases, 878 normoglycemic controls).
Results: 76% of individuals were deficient (<50 nmol/L) in vitamin D. A higher percentage of T2D participants(83%) were vitamin D deficient compared to normoglycemic controls (68%)(p<0.0001).The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency increased progressively with body mass index (BMI) categories (p<0.0001): BMI<23 kg/m2, 65%; BMI 23-27.5 kg/m2, 75%; and BMI>27.5 kg/m2, 81%. T2D participants had significantly decreased serum 25(OH)D levels (β=-0.41, p=2.8 × 10-20). Individuals with low serum 25(OH)D had elevated fasting glucose(β=-0.18, p=0.022), BMI (β=-0.71, p=1.4 × 10-7) and systolic blood pressure (β=-1.68, p=0.006). A positive association of increased 25(OH)D with HOMA-B (β=0.17, p=8.0×10-6), and C-peptide (β=0.09, 0.017) was observed. Non-medicated, normoglycemic, non-hypertensive individuals classified as vitamin D deficient (n=289) exhibited a significant increase in fasting glucose (p=0.02) and BMI (p<0.0001) as well as a significant decrease in C-peptide (p<0.0001) and amylin (p<0.0001) compared to vitamin D sufficient controls (n=150).
Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency appears to be a significant risk factor for T2D severity and associated cardio-metabolic risk. Early intervention may be considered to improve prevention of T2D related cardiovascular complications.