alexa Water Resources of African Circum-Sahara Sub Region (Renewable and Non-renewable Approach)
ISSN: 2381-8719

Journal of Geology & Geophysics
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Research Article

Water Resources of African Circum-Sahara Sub Region (Renewable and Non-renewable Approach)

Al-Gamal SA1* and Younes Hamed2
1Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Hydrology, University of Engineering and Technology (UET), Taxila, Pakistan
2Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Sciences of Gabes University, Gabes-6072, Tunisia
*Corresponding Author : Al-Gamal SA
Foreign Faculty Professor in Environmental Hydrology
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering
University of Engineering and Technology (UET), Taxila, Pakistan
Tel: +202-24701839
E-mail: suhail.algamal@yahoo.com
Received November 08, 2012; Accepted December 17, 2012; Published December 19, 2012
Citation: Al-Gamal SA, Hamed Y (2014) Water Resources of African Circum- Sahara Sub Region (Renewable and Non-renewable Approach). J Geol Geosci 3: 181. doi:10.4172/2329-6755.1000181
Copyright: ©2014 Al-Gamal SA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 

Abstract

Circum is a preposition in Latin meaning “around” and Sahara is a preposition in Arabic meaning “Desert” so it is the regions around African desert. Studies related to Circum-Sahara are too little in-depth knowledge and focus on certain basins but, are generally limited by national boundaries, and do not take account of the transboundary portions of the reservoirs. The resulting development plans for these limited resources, thus, are seriously impeded by ignorance of the mutual effects of intensive withdrawal. Circum –Sahara region has the least renewable water resources of all geopolitical regions of the world, after the Middle East where the renewable fresh natural water resources amounts to 520 km3/year compared to 42,600 km3/yr worldwide. Surface water resources: These are represented by nine border crossing river basins of 1. Nile, 2. Niger 3. Senegal, 4. Gambia, 5. Volta, 6. Chari, 7. Guir-Saoura; 8. Mejerdah; 9. Juba-Shebelle. However and as a result of the arid or semi-arid climatic conditions which prevail in most of the region, the renewable surface water resources are not only temporally irregular but also often difficult to store. Groundwater resources: These are represented by eight border crossing aquifers and can be classified as renewable and non-renewable groundwater resources, these are 1- Nubian Aquifer System (NSAS); 2- North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWAS); 3-Senegalo-Mauritanian Aquifer System (SMAS); 4-Taoudeni Aquifer System (TAS); 5-Mourzouk-Djado Aquifer System (MDAS); 6-Irhazer-Iullemeden Aquifer System (IMAS); 7-Chad Aquifer System (CAS); 8- Errachidia Aquifer System (EAS). The yield of natural resources per inhabitant amounts to 1,000 m3/yr per inhabitant (which corresponds to a population density of 1,000 inhabitants per million m3/yr of resource) .At the present time, six countries of the Circum-Sahara region have natural water resources below 1,000 m3/yr per inhabitant (essentially the Maghreb, in addition to Egypt and Kenya). One of these, Libya, has less than 500 m3/yr. In 2025, another four more countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Morocco and Somalia) will have resources below 1,000 m3/yr per inhabitant, making a total of ten countries and 405 million inhabitants (69% of the total of all the Circum-Sahara countries).The future hydrology of this region is not rosy and may lead to political disputes.

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