What contributes to the success of in vitro fertilization using cryopreserved spermatozoa in rodents?
|Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Azabu University, Sagamihara, Japan|
|School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, Sagamihara, Japan|
|*Corresponding Author :||Dr. Junya Ito
Laboratory of Animal Reproduction
Graduate School of Veterinary Science
Azabu University, Sagamihara, Japan
Fax: +81 42 769 1762
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received November 08, 2011; Accepted November 10, 2011; Published November 30, 2011|
|Citation: Ito J (2011) What Contributes To The Success of In Vitro Fertilization Using Cryopreserved Spermatozoa In Rodents? J Fertiliz In Vitro 1:e102. doi:|
|Copyright: © 2011 Ito J. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
In 1963, Yanagimachi and Chang first succeeded in fertilizing golden hamster eggs in vitro without any contributions from the female genital tract . This is the first success of 'In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)' in mammals. After this success, the protocol of IVF has been established in most of mammalian species studied up to date. At last, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010 was awarded to Dr. Robert G. Edwards who reported the first success of IVF in human with Dr. Patrick C. Steptoe . Also in experimental animals, IVF is a powerful tool for production of offspring. Alternatively, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is now available for the purpose; however, ICSI requires a great deal of skill and cannot be used for many oocytes at the same time. Thus, especially in the production of rodent offspring at the facility, IVF is a more simple and general-purpose method. Moreover using frozen-thawed spermatozoa for IVF can decrease the number of males to be sacrificed for collection of epididymal spermatozoa. However, it has been reported that frozen-thawed spermatozoa from several strains even in mice contribute to low fertility after IVF. Since fresh sperm can fertilize to the oocytes, the process during freezing and thawing seems to affect serious damage of the sperm. Recently, some recent reports have demonstrated significant improvement of IVF using cryopreserved sperm.