alexa Wildlife Toxicology: Where We Have Been and Where We Are Going
ISSN: 2161-0525

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
Open Access

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Review Article

Wildlife Toxicology: Where We Have Been and Where We Are Going

Ronald J Kendall*
Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA
Corresponding Author : Ronald J. Kendall
Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, Texas Tech University
Reese Center, Box 43290, Lubbock, Texas, USA
Tel: 8068850238
E-mail: ron.kendall@ttu.edu
Received: December 23, 2015 Accepted: January 18, 2016 Published: January 22, 2016
Citation: Kendall RJ (2016) Wildlife Toxicology: Where We Have Been and Where We Are Going. J Environ Anal Toxicol 6:348. doi:10.4172/2161-0525.1000348
Copyright: © 2016 Kendall RJ. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Over the last three decades, the field of wildlife toxicology involving the assessment of toxic chemicals on the reproduction, health, and well-being of wildlife species has grown dramatically as a science involving both laboratory and field research. In the early years of the development of wildlife toxicology, there was a strong emphasis on laboratory toxicity tests, including LD50 and LC50 tests, particularly on species such as bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Laboratory tests evolved into largescale field efforts, particularly in the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s, which was facilitated by pesticide re-registration requirements to obtain data to submit to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Now, as wildlife toxicology continues to evolve as a science, sublethal monitoring of wildlife has become much more prominent to assess health impacts. New developments in molecular biology have also allowed insight into the genetic basis for wildlife response to toxic substances. Considering the diversity of fish and wildlife species both in the United States and globally, it continues to be a great challenge to protect this diversity of wildlife species from impacts of toxic substances. As we expand and become more sophisticated in assessing field and laboratory effects of toxic substances in wildlife, we will be able to do a much better job in the future of assessing the effects of environmental contaminants on the reproduction and health of the wide array of wildlife species and developing solutions and/or mitigation strategies.

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