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South Africa is one of the most ethnically diverse countries in Africa. It was inhabited by pastoral Khoekhoe (Khoi), the hunter-gatherer San, the Xhosa, and the Zulu nations and various other indigenous tribes, when Dutch settlers arrived in middle of the 17th century, much to the disadvantage of the Khoekhoe along the southern and western coastal strips. South Africa occupies the southern tip of Africa, its long coastline stretching more than 2 500km from the desert border with Namibia on the Atlantic coast southwards around the tip of Africa and then north to the border of subtropical Mozambique on the Indian Ocean. The low-lying coastal zone is narrow for much of that distance, soon giving way to a mountainous escarpment that separates it from the high inland plateau. The economy of South Africa is the second-largest in Africa, behind Nigeria. South Africa accounts for 24 percent of Africa's gross domestic product, and it is ranked as an upper-middle-income economy by the World Bank – one of only four such countries in Africa. South Africa has a sophisticated financial structure with the JSE Securities Exchange, a large and active stock exchange that ranks 18th in the world in terms of total market capitalization.
In Physics, Medicine and Chemistry, this island nation produced 5 Nobel laureates so far. South Africa has established infrastructure in Mining sector. One survey covers the R&D performed within South Africa by five sectors, namely: the government, science councils, higher educational institutions, business enterprises, and not-for-profit organizations which show a rapid growth gradually. University of Cape Town is the leading Institution in Pharmaceutical Science. South Africa publishes very good number of articles in different international journal or publication house. Numerous pharmaceutical science journals are published from South Africa with good reputation. Several leading institution in the country including University of Cape Town, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Rhodes University, University of the Western Cape, University of North and others are spearheading the pharmaceutical science research).