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Dermatology and Dermatologic Diseases- Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2376-0427

Dermatology and Dermatologic Diseases
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Previously: Journal of Pigmentary Disorders

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Editorial Board
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Hsuan-Hsiang Chen

Department of dermatology
Jing-Mei General Hospital

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Jean C Chamcheu 

Director, Molecular Dermatology & Experimental Therapeutics Lab. School of Pharmaceutical & Toxicological Sciences  University of Louisiana at Monroe

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Iqbal A. Bukhari
University of Dammam
Saudi Arabia

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Leopoldo F. Montes
Professor Emeritus
University of Alabama

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The Dermatology and Dermatologic Diseases is a peer reviewed Journal that publishes studies based on skin, nails, hair and its diseases. It is the most appropriate arena for the mutual interaction between dermatologists, physicians and scientists interested in the skin, nails and hair biology around the world.

The Dermatology and Dermatologic Diseases is an Open Access Scientific Journal that offers an interesting publishing platform globally and aims to keep scientists, clinicians and medical practitioners, researchers, and students informed and updated on the ongoing research in the relevant area. Outstanding quality articles are welcome to maintain the highest standard of the journal and to achieve high impact factor.

Dermatology and Dermatologic Diseases is using Editorial Manager System for maintaining the quality in peer review process. Editorial Manager is an online manuscript submission, review and tracking system. Review processing is performed by the editorial board members of Dermatology and Dermatologic Diseases or by outside experts. At least two independent reviewers approval followed by editor approval is required for acceptance of any citable manuscript. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress through the system, hopefully to publication. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process.

Skin rash

A skin rash is a region of skin that has become inflamed or irritated. Skin rashes can include skin bumps or lesions, scaly or red skin, and scratchy or burning skin. It is common in many individuals but if not treated it grows and affects other parts where it had been in contact.


It is a type of skin cancer develops in the melanocyte. It rarely affects the internal organs. The cause of melanoma is excess exposure to the Ultraviolet radiation from the sun. It affects the people who are 40 or below. If detected early, melanoma can be treated successfully.


Wart occurs when viruses come in contact with the skin causing infection. These warts generally develop in the skin that is in damaged condition. In general children get warts much often than the adults since their immune system is not that well-built.

Seborrheic keratosis

It occurs mostly in adults. It is a non-cancerous disease. It does not become cancerous so it can either be kept or removed depending solely on the person.

Epidermolysis bullosa

It is a group of inherited diseases that cause blister in the skin and mucosal membranes. It is a result of defect in attachment between the dermis and epidermis, resulting in friction and skin brittleness.


It generally affects women especially the pregnant ones. It is the development of light to dark brown pigment appearance on the face.

Hidradenitis suppurativa

It is a long term disease that affects the underarms, under the breasts, inner thighs, buttocks, and groin. Destroying this leads to inflammation and outburst of pus resulting in scar formation that last for long.

Pemphigus vulgaris

It is a rare chronic blistering skin disease. It is classified as a type II hypersensitivity reaction in which antibodies are formed against desmosomes, components of the skin that function to keep certain layers of skin bound to each other. If not treated in time, it distributes itself throughout the bodies causing more pain.

Erythema multiforme

It is a type of erythema specially mediated by immune complexes superficially in the microvasculature of the skin and oral mucous membrane that usually follows an infection or drug exposure. It is an uncommon disorder that occurs lately.


It is a common skin condition in which hair follicles become reddened. The main cause of this is fungal or bacterial infection. At first it may look like a red pimple in the head around the hair but if not treated it will become non- healing and will last for lifelong.

Molluscum contagiosum

Generally called water warts; it is the viral infection of the skin. They may occasionally be itchy or sore occurring singly or in groups. Any area of the skin may be affected, with abdomen, legs, arms, neck, genital area, and face being most common. It generally goes away within a year without leaving any scar.

Dermatitis herpetiformis

Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), or Duhring's disease, is a prolonged blistering skin condition, characterised by sores filled with a watery fluid. It is not caused by the herpes virus, rather it is a kind of skin inflammation having appearance of a herpes.


It is a condition characterized by abnormal increase in sweating. Although primarily a physical burden, it can help in deteriorating quality of life from a psychological, emotional, and social perspective. It is also known as the “The Silent Handicap”.


Rare inflammatory disease having common symptoms of dermatomyositis includes a unique skin rash, muscle weakness, and inflammatory myopathy. It’s one of only three known inflammatory myopathies. It affects both adults and children. This disease cannot be cured.


Keloid, also known as keloid disorder and keloidal scar, is the development of a sort of scar, which is dependent upon its development, is made mostly out of either sort III (early) or sorts I (late) collagen. It is a consequence of an abundance granulation tissue (collagen sort 3) at the site of a recuperated skin damage which is then gradually supplanted by collagen sort 1. Keloids are firm, rubbery sores or sparkly, sinewy knobs, and can shift from pink to the shade of the individual's skin or red to dull dark colored in shading. A keloid scar is not infectious, but in some cases linked by serious irritation and pain. In extreme cases, it can influence the development of skin.


It is a kind of bacterial skin inflammation generally characterized by formation of pus.

Majeed Syndrome

Majeed syndrome is an inherited skin disorder characterized by chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, congenital dyserythropoietic anemia and a neutrophilic dermatosis. It is classified as an autoinflammatory bone disorder. The condition is found in people with two defective copies (autosomal recessive inheritance) of the LPIN2 gene. LPIN2 encodes lipin-2 which is involved in lipid metabolism. The pathogenesis of this mutation with the clinical manifestations has not been elucidated.

Acne Pigmentation

Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin. It is characterized by blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, greasy skin, and possible scarring. It primarily affects areas of the skin with a relatively high number of oil glands, including the face, upper part of the chest, and back. The resulting appearance can lead to anxiety, reduced self-esteem and, in extreme cases, depression or thoughts of suicide. Genetics is thought to be the primary cause of acne in 80% of cases. The role of diet and cigarette smoking is unclear, and neither cleanliness nor exposure to sunlight appears to play a part. During puberty, in both sexes, acne is often brought on by an increase in hormones such as testosterone. Excessive growth of the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which is normally present on the skin, is often involved.

Herpes simplex

The herpes simplex virus, also known as HSV, is an infection that causes herpes. Herpes can appear in various parts of the body, most commonly on the genitals or mouth. There are two types of the herpes simplex virus. HSV-1: Also known as oral herpes, this type can cause cold sores and fever blisters around the mouth and on the face. Eating from the same utensils, Sharing lip balm, Kissing. The virus spreads more quickly when an infected person is experiencing an outbreak. Anywhere from 30 to 95 percent of adults are seropositive for HSV-1, though they may never experience an outbreak. It’s also possible to get genital herpes from HSV-1 if someone who performed oral sex had cold sores during that time. HSV-2: This type is generally responsible for genital herpes outbreaks. The herpes simplex virus is a contagious virus that can be passed from person to person through direct contact. Children will often contract HSV-1 from early contact with an infected adult. They then carry the virus with them for the rest of their lives.


Hirsutism is excessive body hair in men and women on parts of the body where hair is normally absent or minimal, such as on the chin or chest in particular, or the face or body in general. It may refer to a male pattern of hair growth that may be a sign of a more serious medical condition, especially if it develops well after puberty. It can be caused by increased levels of androgen hormones. The amount and location of the hair is measured by a Ferriman-Gallwey score. It is different than hypertrichosis, which is excessive hair growth anywhere on the body.

Keratosis pilaris

Keratosis pilaris (KP) (also follicular keratosis, lichen pilaris, or colloquially "chicken skin") is a common, autosomal dominant, genetic condition of the skin's hair follicles characterized by the appearance of rough, slightly red bumps on light skin and brown bumps on darker skin. It most often appears on the back, outer sides of the upper arm (though the forearm can also be affected), face, thighs, and buttocks; KP can also occur on the hands, and tops of legs, sides, or any body part except glabrous skin (like the palms or soles of feet). Often the lesions will appear on the face, which may be mistaken for acne.


A wrinkle, also known as a rhytide, is a fold, ridge or crease in the skin or on fabric. Skin wrinkles typically appear as a result of aging processes such as glycation, habitual sleeping positions, loss of body mass, or temporarily, as the result of prolonged immersion in water. Age wrinkling in the skin is promoted by habitual facial expressions, aging, sun damage, smoking, poor hydration, and various other factors.


Cellulite (also known as adiposis edematosa, dermopanniculosis deformans, status protrusus cutis, gynoid lipodystrophy, and orange peel syndrome) is the herniation of subcutaneous fat within fibrous connective tissue that manifests topographically as skin dimpling and nodularity, often on the pelvic region (specifically the buttocks), lower limbs, and abdomen. Cellulite is a secondary sex characteristic occurring in most postpubescent females. A review gives a prevalence of 85%-98% of women, indicating that it is physiologic rather than pathologic. It can result from a complex combination of factors ranging from hormones to heredity.

Aphthous stomatitis

Aphthous stomatitis is a common condition characterized by the repeated formation of benign and non-contagious mouth ulcers (aphthae) in otherwise healthy individuals. The informal term canker sores is also used, mainly in North America, although this may also refer to any mouth ulcer. The cause is not completely understood, but involves a T cell-mediated immune response triggered by a variety of factors. Different individuals have different triggers, which may include nutritional deficiencies, local trauma, stress, hormonal influences, allergies, genetic predisposition or other factors. These ulcers occur periodically and heal completely between attacks. In the majority of cases, the individual ulcers last about 7–10 days, and ulceration episodes occur 3–6 times per year. Most appear on the non-keratinizing epithelial surfaces in the mouth (i.e. anywhere except the attached gingiva, the hard palate and the dorsum of the tongue), although the more severe forms, which are less common, may also involve keratinizing epithelial surfaces. Symptoms range from a minor nuisance to interfering with eating and drinking. The severe forms may be debilitating, even causing weight loss due to malnutrition.

Pigmentary Changes

Chronic exposure to sunlight may stimulate the epidermal melanocyte system rather than accelerating chronological ageing. The number of melanocytic naevi declines with age. Despite the decreased melanocyte density, photoaged skin has irregular pigmentation and, frequently, there is hyperpigmentation. This may be due to greater positivity of dopa of chronically irradiated melanocytes. Heterogeneity in skin colour in exposed areas of skin is due to uneven distribution of pigment cells, a local loss of melanocytes, and a modification in the interactions between melanocytes and keratinocytes. The most common pigmented lesions in sun-exposed skin include ephelides, actinic lentigo, pigmented solar keratoses and seborrhoeic keratoses, and lentigo maligna. The white spots in aged skin are usually stellate pseudoscars or idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis. Greying of the hair is due to progressive loss of melanocytes from the hair follicles. In vivo and in vitro studies are necessary to increase overall understanding of the processes involved and to improve treatment of the pigmentary changes in ageing skin.


The cheilitis is a ' inflammation of the skin to the lip that manifests as cuts, swelling and even ulceration that depart from the corners or edge and extend on the lips.


Gangrene is a type of necrosis caused by a critically insufficient blood supply. This potentially life-threatening condition may occur after an injury or infection, or in people suffering from any chronic health problem affecting blood circulation. The primary cause of gangrene is reduced blood supply to the affected tissues, which results in cell death. Diabetes and long-term smoking increase the risk of gangrene. Gangrene is not a communicable disease; it does not spread from person to person, though the infection associated to some forms can. The types of gangrene differ in symptoms, and include dry gangrene, wet gangrene, gas gangrene, internal gangrene, and necrotizing fasciitis. Surgical removal of gangrenous tissue and antibiotics are the mainstays of treatment for gangrene. After the gangrene is treated, the underlying cause is addressed. This includes lifestyle modification such as smoking cessation, better control of diabetes, revascularization or, rarely, medical therapy to stop vascular spasm or the production of cold-induced vascular obstruction by cold-precipitated cryoglobulins.

Dark circles

Dark circles (also known as dark circles or periorbital hyperpigmentation) are dark blemishes around the eyes. There are many causes of this symptom, including heredity and bruising. Any condition that causes the eyes to itch can contribute to darker circles due to rubbing or scratching the skin around them. Hay fever sufferers in particular will notice under-eye "smudges" during the height of the allergy season. Some food allergies can also cause the area under the eyes to appear darker.


Rosacea (rose-AY-sha) is a common skin disease. It often begins with a tendency to blush or flush more easily than other people. The redness can slowly spread beyond the nose and cheeks to the forehead and chin. Even the ears, chest, and back can be red all the time. Rosacea can cause more than redness.
There are so many signs and symptoms that rosacea has four subtypes:
Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea: Redness, flushing, visible blood vessels.
Papulopustular rosacea: Redness, swelling, and acne-like breakouts.
Phymatous rosacea: Skin thickens and has a bumpy texture.
Ocular rosacea: Eyes red and irritated, eyelids can be swollen, and person may have what looks like a sty. With time, people who have rosacea often see permanent redness in the center of their face.

Dry skin

Dry skin is an uncomfortable condition marked by scaling, itching, and cracking. It can occur for a variety of reasons. You might have naturally dry skin. But even if your skin tends to be oily, you can develop dry skin from time to time. Dry skin can develop on any part of your body. It’s most likely to affect your hands, arms, and legs. In many cases, lifestyle changes and over-the-counter moisturizers may be all you need to treat it. Exposure to dry weather conditions, hot water, and certain chemicals can cause your skin to dry out. Dry skin can also result from underlying medical conditions.


A rash is a change of the skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture. A rash may be localized in one part of the body, or affect all the skin. Rashes may cause the skin to change color, itch, become warm, bumpy, chapped, dry, cracked or blistered, swell, and may be painful. The causes, and therefore treatments for rashes, vary widely. Diagnosis must take into account such things as the appearance of the rash, other symptoms, what the patient may have been exposed to, occupation, and occurrence in family members. Rash can last 5 to 20 days, the diagnosis may confirm any number of conditions. The presence of a rash may aid diagnosis; associated signs and symptoms are diagnostic of certain diseases. For example, the rash in measles is an erythematous, morbilliform, maculopapular rash that begins a few days after the fever starts. It classically starts at the head, and spreads downwards.

Genital wart

Genital warts are symptoms of a contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by some types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Warts are the most easily recognized symptom of genital HPV infection. About 90% of those who contract HPV will not develop genital warts, and the remaining 10% who are infected can transmit the virus. HPV types 6 and 11 are most frequently the cause of genital warts. It is spread through direct skin-to-skin contact, usually during oral, genital, or anal sex with an infected partner. While some types of HPV cause cervical cancer and anal cancers, these are not the same types of HPV that cause genital warts.

Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra

Dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN) is a condition of many small, benign skin lesions on the face, a condition generally presenting on dark-skinned individuals. DPN is extremely common, affecting up to 30% of Black people in the US. From a histological perspective, DPN resembles seborrheic keratoses. The condition may be cosmetically undesirable to some patients. They should not be confused for Leser-Trélat sign, a sudden explosion of lesions due to a growing tumor.


Keloid, also known as keloid disorder and keloidal scar, is the formation of types of scars which, depending on its maturity, is composed mainly of either type III (early) or types I (late) collagen. It is a result of an overgrowth of granulation tissue (collagen type 3) at the site of a healed skin injury which is then slowly replaced by collagen type 1. Keloids are firm, rubbery lesions or shiny, fibrous nodules, and can vary from pink to the color of the patient's flesh or red to dark brown in color. A keloid scar is benign and not contagious, but sometimes accompanied by severe itchiness, pain, and changes in texture. In severe cases, it can affect movement of skin. Keloid scars are seen 15 times more frequently in people of African descent than in people of European descent. Keloids should not be confused with hypertrophic scars, which are raised scars that do not grow beyond the boundaries of the original wound.


A milium (plural milia), also called a milk spot or an oil seed, is a clog of the eccrine sweat gland. It is a keratin-filled cyst that can appear just under the epidermis or on the roof of the mouth. Milia are commonly associated with new-born babies but can appear on people of all ages. They are usually found around the nose and eyes, and sometimes on the genitalia, often mistaken by those affected as warts or other sexually transmitted diseases. Milia can also be confused with stubborn whiteheads. In children, milia often disappear within two to four weeks. For adults, they can be removed by a physician (a dermatologist will have specialist knowledge in this area).

Pemphigus Vulgaris

Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare chronic blistering skin disease and the most common form of pemphigus. It is classified as a type II hypersensitivity reaction, with the formation of antibodies against desmosomes, components of the skin that function to keep certain layers of skin bound to each other. As desmosomes are attacked, the layers of skin separate and the clinical picture resemble a blister. Over time the condition inevitably progresses without treatment: lesions increase in size and distribution throughout the body, behaving physiologically like a severe burn. Before the advent of modern treatments, mortality for the disease was close to 90%. Today, the mortality rate with treatment is between 5-15%.


Leukoplakia generally refers to a firmly attached white patch on a mucous membrane which is associated with an increased risk of cancer. The edges of the lesion are typically abrupt and the lesion changes with time. Advanced forms may develop red patches. There are generally no other symptoms. It usually occurs within the mouth, although sometimes mucosa in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, or genitals may be affected. The cause of leukoplakia is unknown. Risk factors for formation inside the mouth include smoking, chewing tobacco, excessive alcohol, and use of betel nuts. It is a precancerous lesion, a tissue alteration in which cancer is more likely to develop. The chance of cancer formation depends on the type, with between 3–15% of localized leukoplakia and 70–100% of proliferative leukoplakia developing into squamous cell carcinoma.

Actinic keratosis

Actinic keratosis (also called solar keratosis and senile keratosis is a pre-cancerous patch of thick, scaly, or crusty skin. These growths are more common in fair-skinned people and those who are frequently in the sun. They usually form when skin gets damaged by ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or indoor tanning beds. AKs are considered potentially pre-cancerous; left untreated; they may turn into a type of cancer called squamous cell carcinoma. Untreated lesions have up to a 20% risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma, so treatment by a dermatologist is recommended. Development of these growths occurs when skin is constantly exposed to the sun over time. They usually appear as thick, scaly, or crusty areas that often feel dry or rough. In fact, AKs are often felt before they are seen, and the texture is often compared to sandpaper. They may be dark, light, tan, pink, red, a combination of all these, or have the same color as the surrounding skin. An actinic keratosis lesion commonly ranges between 2 and 6 millimeters in size but can grow to be a few centimeters in diameter. They often appear on sun-exposed areas of the skin, such as the face, ears, neck, scalp, chest, backs of hands, forearms, or lips. Because they are related to sun-damage on the skin, most people who have an AK have more than one.

Melanocytic Nevus

A melanocytic nevus (also known as "nevocytic nevus" or "nevus-cell nevus") is a type of lesion that contains nevus cells (a type of melanocyte). Some sources equate the term mole with "melanocytic nevus". Other sources reserve the term "mole" for other purposes. The majority of moles appear during the first two decades of a person's life, with about one in every 100 babies being born with moles. Acquired moles are a form of benign neoplasm, while congenital moles, or congenital nevi, are considered a minor malformation or hamartoma and may be at a higher risk for melanoma. A mole can be either subdermal (under the skin) or a pigmented growth on the skin, formed mostly of a type of cell known as a melanocyte. The high concentration of the body's pigmenting agent, melanin, is responsible for their dark color. Moles are a member of the family of skin lesions known as nevi.

Molluscum Contagiosum

Molluscum contagiosum (MC), sometimes called water warts, is a viral infection of the skin and occasionally of the mucous membranes. MC can affect any area of the skin, but is most common on the trunk of the body, arms, groin, and legs. It is caused by a DNA poxvirus called the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). MCV has no non-human reservoir (infecting primarily humans, though equids can rarely be infected). The virus that causes molluscum contagiosum is spread from person to person by touching the affected skin. The virus may also be spread by touching a surface with the virus on it, such as a towel, clothing, or toys. Risk factors include being sexually active, and those who are immunodeficient. Four types of MCV are known, MCV-1 to -4; MCV-1 is the most common and MCV-2 is seen usually in adults. Approximately 122 million people were affected worldwide by molluscum contagiosum as of 2010 (1.8% of the population). It is more common in children. Molluscum contagiosum is most common in children aged one to 11 years old. Some evidence indicates molluscum infections have been on the rise globally since 1966, but these infections are not routinely monitored because they are seldom serious and routinely disappear without treatment. Molluscum contagiosum is contagious until the bumps are gone. Some growths may remain for up to 4 years if not treated.

Poikiloderma Vasculare Atrophicans

Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans (PVA), sometimes referred to as parapsoriasis variegata or parapsoriasis lichenoides is a cutaneous condition (skin disease) characterized by hypo- or hyperpigmentation (diminished or heightened skin pigmentation, respectively), telangiectasia and skin atrophy. Other names for the condition include prereticulotic poikiloderma and atrophic parapsoriasis. The condition was first described by pioneer American pediatrician Abraham Jacobi in 1906. PVA causes areas of affected skin to appear speckled red and inflamed, yellowish and/or brown, gray or grayish-black, with scaling and a thinness that may be described as "cigarette paper". On the surface of the skin, these areas may range in size from small patches, to plaques (larger, raised areas), to neoplasms (spreading, tumor-like growths on the skin).

Mycosis Fungoides

Mycosis fungoides, a type of skin lymphoma, may be a cause of PVA. The condition may also be caused by, associated with or accompany any of the following conditions or disorders: other skin lymphomas, dermatomyositis, lupus erythematosus, Rothmund-Thompson syndrome, Kindler syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, and chronic radiodermatitis. Rare causes include arsenic ingestion, and the condition can also be idiopathic.

Diabetic Cheiroarthropathy

Diabetic cheiroarthropathy is a cutaneous condition characterized by thickened skin and limited joint mobility of the hands and fingers, leading to flexion contractures, a condition associated with diabetes mellitus and it is observed in roughly 30% of diabetic patients with longstanding disease. Limited Joint Mobility, or LJM, is a complication of Type 1 Diabetes. It was one of the earliest known complications, first documented in 1974.

Diabetic Dermopathy

Diabetic dermopathy (also known as "shin spots") is a type of skin lesion usually seen in people with diabetes mellitus. It is characterized by dull-red papules that progress to well-circumscribed, small, round, atrophic hypopigmented skin lesions usually on the shins. It is the most common of several diabetic skin conditions, being found in up to 30% of diabetics. Similar lesions can occasionally be found in non-diabetics usually following trauma or injury to the area; however, >4 lesions strongly suggests diabetes.

Black Hairy Tongue

Black hairy tongue (BHT, also termed lingua villosa nigra) refers to a condition of the tongue where the filiform papillae elongate with black or brown discoloration, giving a black and hairy appearance. The appearance may be alarming, but it is a harmless condition. Predisposing factors include smoking, xerostomia (dry mouth), soft diet, poor oral hygiene and certain medications. Management is by improving oral hygiene, especially scraping or brushing the tongue.


Erythroplakia (or erythroplasia) is a clinical term to describe any erythematous (red) area on a mucous membrane that cannot be attributed to any other pathology. The term erythroplasia was coined by Louis Queyrat to describe a precancerous red lesion of the penis. This gave rise to the term erythoplasia of Queyrat. Depending upon the context, this term may refer specifically to carcinoma in situ of the glans penis or vulva appearing as a red patch, or may be used as a synonym of erythroplasia on other mucous membrane or transitional sites. It mainly affects the glans penis (the head of the penis), although uncommonly it may present on the mucous membranes of the larynx and rarely, the mouth or the anus.


Neurodermatitis is a skin condition that begins with an itch. The itch can develop anywhere on the surface of the body. Most commonly, though, an itchy patch develops on an arm, leg, or the back of the neck. It also commonly develops in the anal and genital areas. When it appears in the genital area, it often appears on the scrotum or vulva. The itch can be so intense that a person scratches or rubs the itchy patch frequently. The itch can also come and go. For most people, the area feels itchiest when they are relaxing or sleeping. The itch causes people to scratch or rub the area while sleeping — and it can awaken someone from a sound sleep.

Poikiloderma of Civatte

Poikiloderma of Civatte is a cutaneous condition and refers to reticulated red to red-brown patches with telangiectasias. It is identifiable as the reddish brown discoloration on sides of the neck, usually on both sides. It is more common with women than men and more commonly effects middle-aged to elderly women. "Poikiloderma" is basically a change of the skin due to dilation of the blood vessels in the neck. "Civatte" was the French dermatologist who first identified it in the 1920s.

Epidermoid cyst

An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin. The cyst develops out of ectodermal tissue. Histologically, it is made of a thin layer of squamous epithelium.


Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin. These diseases are characterized by itchiness, red skin, and a rash. In cases of short duration there may be small blisters while in long-term cases the skin may become thickened. The area of skin involved can vary from small to the entire body. Dermatitis is a group of skin conditions that includes atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis. The exact cause of dermatitis is often unclear. Cases are believed to often involve a combination of irritation, allergy, and poor venous return. The type of dermatitis is generally determined by the person's history and the location of the rash. For example, irritant dermatitis often occurs on the hands of people who frequently get them wet. Allergic contact dermatitis, however, can occur following brief exposures to substances a person is sensitive too.

Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC or SqCC), also known as squamous cell cancer, is one of the main types of skin cancer that begins from squamous cells in the skin. Cancers that involve the anus, cervix, head and neck, and vagina are also most often squamous cell cancers. The esophagus, urinary bladder, prostate, and lung are other possible sites. Frequent exposure to direct, strong sunlight without adequate sunscreen protection is a risk factor for skin cancer. Despite sharing the name squamous cell carcinoma, the SCCs of different body sites can show differences in their presenting symptoms, natural history, prognosis, and response to treatment. SCC typically occurs in people older than 50 years. As of 2014 an increasing number of people in their 20s and 30s are being affected. It is twice as common in men as in women. People with darker skin and eyes have a lower risk than individuals with lighter colored skin. People with fair skin, light hair and eyes are at highest risk of developing the disease.

Skin Aging Changes

With aging, the outer skin layer (epidermis) thins, even though the number of cell layers remains unchanged. The number of pigment-containing cells (melanocytes) decreases. The remaining melanocytes increase in size. Aging skin looks thinner, paler, and clear (translucent). Large pigmented spots, including age spots, liver spots, or lentigos, may appear in sun-exposed areas. Changes in the connective tissue reduce the skin's strength and elasticity. This is known as elastosis. It is more noticeable in sun-exposed areas (solar elastosis). Elastosis produces the leathery, weather-beaten appearance common to farmers, sailors, and others who spend a large amount of time outdoors. The blood vessels of the dermis become more fragile. This leads to bruising, bleeding under the skin (often called senile purpura), cherry angiomas, and similar conditions. Sebaceous glands produce less oil as you age. Men experience a minimal decrease, most often after the age of 80. Women gradually produce less oil beginning after menopause. This can make it harder to keep the skin moist, resulting in dryness and itchiness.

Cancer Type Melanoma

Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes. Melanomas typically occur in the skin but may rarely occur in the mouth, intestines, or eye. In women they most commonly occur on the legs, while in men they are most common on the back. Sometimes they develop from a mole with concerning changes including an increase in size, irregular edges, and changes in color, itchiness, or skin breakdown. The primary cause of melanoma is ultraviolet light (UV) exposure in those with low levels of skin pigment. The UV light may be from either the sun or from other sources, such as tanning devices. About 25% develop from moles. Those with many moles, a history of affected family members, and who have poor immune function are at greater risk. A number of rare genetic defects such as xeroderma pigmentosum also increase risk. Diagnosis is by biopsy of any concerning skin lesion. Using sunscreen and avoiding UV light may prevent melanoma.

Seven Year Itch

Scabies, previously known as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The most common symptoms are severe itchiness and a pimple-like rash. Occasionally tiny burrows may be seen in the skin. When first infected, usually two to six weeks are required before symptoms occur. If a person develops a second infection later in life, symptoms may begin within a day. These symptoms can be present across most of the body or just certain areas such as the wrists, between fingers, or along the waistline. The head may be affected, but this is typically only in young children. The itch is often worse at night. Scratching may cause skin breakdown and an additional bacterial infection of the skin. Scabies is caused by infection with the female mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. The mites burrow into the skin to live and deposit eggs. The symptoms of scabies are due to an allergic reaction to the mites.


Rhinophyma is a condition causing development of a large, bulbous, ruddy nose associated with granulomatous infiltration, commonly due to untreated rosacea. Rhinophyma is characterised by prominent pores and a fibrous thickening of the nose, sometimes with papules. It is associated with the common skin condition rosacea. It can carry a strong psychological impact due to its effect on one's personal appearance.

Melanosis Coli

Melanosis coli, also pseudomelanosis coli, is a disorder of pigmentation of the wall of the colon, often identified at the time of colonoscopy. It is benign, and may have no significant correlation with disease. The brown pigment is lipofuscin in macrophages, not melanin.The most common cause of melanosis coli is the extended use of laxatives, and commonly anthraquinone containing laxatives such as Senna, Aloe Vera and other plant glycosides.

Oral pigmentation

Oral pigmentation is a relatively common condition that may involve any portion of the oral cavity. Multiple causes are known, and they may range from simple iatrogenic mechanisms, such as implantation of dental amalgam, to complex medical disorders, such as Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Local irritants, such as smoking, may also result in melanosis of varying degrees. Oral pigmented lesions result from cellular hyperplasia that can range from benign nevi to fatal oral melanoma. Pigmented entities may arise from intrinsic and extrinsic sources. The color may range from light brown to blue-black. The color depends on the source of the pigment and the depth of the pigment from which the color is derived. Melanin is brown, yet it imparts a blue, green, or brown color to the eye. This effect is due to the physical properties of light absorption and reflection described by the Tyndall light phenomenon or effect. Oral conditions associated with increased melanin are common; however, those due to melanocytic hyperplasias are rare.

Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba Syndrome (BRRS)

BRRS is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by GI hamartomatous polyps, macrocephaly, hyperpigmentation of the glans penis, developmental delay and hemangiomas. Germline mutation of the PTEN gene can be detected in 60% of individuals. This syndrome originally described as the triad of macrocephaly, lipomatosis and pigmentation of glans penis. Although BRRS has overlapping features with CS, it is usually diagnosed at younger ages with 68% male predominance. In contrast, CS often occurs later in life and more frequently seen in women. GI manifestations include hamartomatous polyps found in 50% of patients, diarrhea, intussusceptions and anemia. Polyps can be seen in the entire GI tract, however they are more common in distal ileum and colon. BRRS is not associated with CRC or other GI malignancies however these patients are at risk of malignancies of PTEN mutations including breast, thyroid, kidney, and endometrium. The most specific related cutaneous manifestation of BRRS is Hyperpigmented macules involving the glans penis or vulva. Other skin findings include genital lentigines, facial verrucae-like or acanthosis nigricans-like lesions, multiple acrochordons of the neck, axilla, and groin, vascular malformations, and lipomas. Histologically the hyperpigmented lesions appear as lentiginous epidermal hyperplasia, with an increased number of melanosomes and a slight increase in melanocytes. Other reported findings include central nervous system symptoms like hypotonia, delayed psychomotor development, seizures and ocular abnormalities involving retina and cornea. All the patients with BRRS regardless of phenotypic expression are at risk of malignancies. Therefore, comprehensive management focused on early diagnosis by frequent screening of the organs at risk of cancer is required. The current guidelines are similar to CS.

Sebaceous Adenoma

The most common skin lesion is the sebaceous adenoma, presenting as yellow papules or nodules predominantly on the face. Histologically sebaceous adenoma has a nodular lobulated growth with dark and light areas corresponding to generative cells (dark) and sebaceous cells (light) with cytoplasmic lipid vacuoles. Sebaceous epitheliomas differ in the degree of differentiation to adenomas and microscopically may appear similar to a basal cell carcinoma, but with focal sebaceous differentiation. Sebaceous carcinomas are typically found on the eyelids as yellow nodules with tendency to ulceration and are locally aggressive in nature. Excision and cryotherapy are helpful techniques for removal of the skin lesions. Isotetinoin and interferon-α2A are been suggested in treating early lesions and also preventing tumor development. Keratoacanthomas may appear in 20% of patients with typical histologic features except on the rare occasion when they may show sebaceous differentiation.

Genetics of Pigmentary Disorders

The genetic and molecular bases of various types of congenital pigmentary disorders have been classified in the past 10 years, as follows: (1) disorders of melanoblast migration in the embryo from the neural crest to the skin: piebaldism; Waardenburg syndrome 1-4 (WS1-WS4); dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. (2) Disorders of melanosome formation in the melanocyte: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 1-7 (HPS1-7); Chediak-Higashi syndrome 1 (CHS1). (3) Disorders of melanin synthesis in the melanosome: oculocutaneous albinism 1-4 (OCA1-4). (4) Disorders of mature melanosome transfer to the tips of the dendrites Griscelli syndrome 1-3 (GS1-3). These disorders are presented and their gene mutations and pathogenesis are discussed.

The genetic and molecular bases of various types of congenital pigmentary disorders have been classified in the past 10 years, as follows: (1) disorders of melanoblast migration in the embryo from the neural crest to the skin: piebaldism; Waardenburg syndrome 1-4 (WS1-WS4); dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. (2) Disorders of melanosome formation in the melanocyte: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 1-7 (HPS1-7); Chediak-Higashi syndrome 1 (CHS1). (3) Disorders of melanin synthesis in the melanosome: oculocutaneous albinism 1-4 (OCA1-4). (4) Disorders of mature melanosome transfer to the tips of the dendrites Griscelli syndrome 1-3 (GS1-3). These disorders are presented and their gene mutations and pathogenesis are discussed.

Spider Angioma

A spider angioma (also known as a nevus araneus, spider nevus, vascular spider, and spider telangiectasia) is a type of telangiectasis (swollen blood vessels) found slightly beneath the skin surface, often containing a central red spot and reddish extensions which radiate outwards like a spider's web. They are common and may be benign, presenting in around 10–15% of healthy adults and young children. However, having more than three spider angiomas is likely to be abnormal and may be a sign of liver disease. It also suggests the probability of esophageal varices.

Terry Nails

Terry's nails is a physical condition in which a person's fingernails or toenails appear white with a characteristic "ground glass" appearance without any lunula. The condition is thought to be due to a decrease in vascularity and an increase in connective tissue within the nail bed. It frequently occurs in the setting of liver failure, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, hyperthyroidism, or malnutrition. Eighty percent of patients with severe liver disease have Terry's nails, but they are also found in patients with kidney failure, in patients with congestive heart failure[4] and are described as a brown arc near the ends of the nails. The recognition of characteristic nail patterns, such as Terry’s nails, may be a helpful herald for early diagnosis of systemic diseases. This was named for Dr. Richard Terry.


Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disease most frequently caused by a chronic lack of niacin (vitamin B3 or vitamin PP, from pellagra-preventing factor) in the diet. It can be caused by decreased intake of niacin or tryptophan, and possibly by excessive intake of leucine. It may also result from alterations in protein metabolism in disorders such as carcinoid syndrome or Hartnup disease. A deficiency of the amino acid lysine can lead to a deficiency of niacin as well.


Vitiligo (vit-ih-LIE-go) is a pigmentary disorder that causes the loss of skin color. The degree and rate of skin shading from vitiligo is capricious. It can impact the skin on anywhere of our body. It may moreover impact hair, inside of the mouth and even the eyes. Vitiligo is a disease that causes the loss of skin color in blotches. It is not a contagious and has types such as Segmental vitiligo and Non-segmental vitiligo


Melanin is a perplexing polymer derived from the amino destructive tyrosine. Melanin "The Chemical Key to Life" offers color to human skin, hair, and eyes. It is derived from melanocytes. Melanin is a gathering of complex polymerix chain which exist in our bodies in a variety of diverse structures. It is comprised of distinctive forms to be specific melanin polymers, building blocks and substances which are useful in breaking down the substances.



Melasma (mask of pregnancy, chloasma) is patches of dark skin that appears on the area of the face which is exposed to sun. It is more common in females and individuals with darker skin-tones who live in sunny atmospheres. It is thought to be basically identified with external sun exposure, hormones like anticonception medication pills, and inner hormonal changes as found in pregnancy. Melasma is basically darker-than-typical skin influencing the cheeks, brow, upper lip, nose and button, as in a symmetrical way. It might be constrained to the cheeks and nose or simply happen overlying the jaw.


Skin Dark Spots

Dark spots on the skin, likewise called hyperpigmentation, are a typical skin issue particularly starting in middle age. Purposes behind dark spots are because of development of overabundance melanin on the skin. These brown appearing spots show up typically around the cheeks, arms and hands. Many refer to them as “age spots”. They are treated by Intense Pulsed Light Therapy and Microdermabrasion or by using sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF)


Melasma Treatment

Melasma treatment incorporates Hydroquinone, Tretinoin and corticosteroids, Other topical (connected to the skin) prescriptions like azelaic acid or kojic acid Chemical peel.

Skin tumor Skin growth — the irregular development of skin cells — frequently grows on skin presented to the sun. The two most normal sorts are basal cell tumor and squamous cell malignancy. They mostly appear on the head, face, neck, hands, and arms. Another sort of skin growth, melanoma, is more risky yet less regular.

Pale skinned person lacking melanin pigmentation, with the outcome being that the skin and hair are strangely white or smooth and the eyes have a pink or blue iris and a dark red.



Tattos are permanent coloration of the skin by the introduction of external pigment. A tattoo may be made intentionally or may coincidentally happen when a touch of graphite from a softened pencil point is implanted up the skin. Laser is favored for evacuation of tatoos, small tattoos can be uprooted by surgical extraction.


Hair Color

Hair color is the pigmentation of hair follicles melanin. There are two sorts of melanin eumelanin and pheomelanin. In the event that more eumelanin is available, the shading of the hair is darker; if less eumelanin is available, the hair is lighter. Conditions influencing hair color are Aging or achromotrichia, Stress and so on.


Plaque Psoriasis

Plaque psoriasis is the most well-known type of the perpetual, relapsing, provocative skin disease with a strong hereditary premise ailment and shows up as raised, red patches secured with a gleaming white development of dead skin cells or scale. Three fundamental treatment modalities are accessible for the general management of psoriasis: topical operators; phototherapy; and biological therapies, including biologic treatments. These medications may be utilized alone or as a part of blend.



Sunburn inflammation is due to prolong exposure to ultraviolet radiation usually within the range of 260–320 nm in sunlight. Sunburn is manifested by reddened, painful skin that may develop blisters. It increases risk of developing skin cancers like melanoma. It is also called as erythema solare


Sun poisoning

Sunburn acute cutaneous inflammatory reaction accompanied with dehydration is known as sun Poisoning or Photodermatitis. Symptoms of sun poisoning include fever and chills, nausea, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing, and possibly shock with loss of consciousness



Sun protection factor is the ratio of the exposure time to the sun required to produce a given level of erythaema before the application of sunscreen to the time of exposure required to produce such erythema after the application of sunscreen.



Appearance is the shade of the skin particularly face and it is an organic characteristic. Variety in skin appearance is because of protein atom known as Melanin. Melanosomes shield the DNA from changes created by sun radiation.



Experts who are specialized in enhancing external layer of skin epidermis. They are trained in the cosmetic treatment of the skin. They perform various cosmetic procedures including facials, body treatments, and waxing


Journal of Pigmentary Disorders is associated with our " 14th International Conference on Clinical and Experimental Dermatology" (Dermatology-2017) June 19-20, 2017 Philadelphia ,USA with a theme "The Skin - Interface with the World". We are particularly interested in Articles related to Vitiligo, Melasma, Melanocytes, Hyperpigmentation, Tatoos, Skin Cancers and in other related clinical and medical areas.

Pathological Dermatology

Dermatopathology is a joint subspecialty of dermatology and pathology and to a lesser extent of surgical pathology that focuses on the study of cutaneous diseases at a microscopic and molecular level. It also encompasses analyses of the potential causes of skin diseases at a basic level. Dermatopathologists work in close association with clinical dermatologists. In fact, most of them are trained primarily in dermatology themselves. Dermatologists are able to recognize most skin diseases based on their appearances, anatomic distributions, and behavior. Sometimes, however, those criteria do not allow a conclusive diagnosis to be made, and a skin biopsy is taken to be examined under the microscope or are subject to other molecular tests. That process reveals the histology of the disease and results in a specific diagnostic interpretation. In some cases, additional specialized testing needs to be performed on biopsies, including immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and molecular-pathologic analysis.


Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin. They are due to the development of abnormal cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. There are three main types of skin cancers: basal-cell skin cancer (BCC), squamous-cell skin cancer (SCC) and melanoma. The first two together along with a number of less common skin cancers are known as nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Basal-cell cancer grows slowly and can damage the tissue around it but is unlikely to spread to distant areas or result in death. It often appears as a painless raised area of skin, that may be shiny with small blood vessel running over it or may present as a raised area with an ulcer. Squamous-cell cancer is more likely to spread. It usually presents as a hard lump with a scaly top but may also form an ulcer. Melanomas are the most aggressive. Signs include a mole that has changed in size, shape, color, has irregular edges, has more than one color, is itchy or bleeds. Greater than 90% of cases are caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. This exposure increases the risk of all three main types of skin cancer. Exposure has increased partly due to a thinner ozone layer. Tanning beds are becoming another common source of ultraviolet radiation. For melanomas and basal-cell cancers exposure during childhood is particularly harmful. For squamous-cell cancers total exposure, irrespective of when it occurs, is more important. Between 20% and 30% of melanomas develop from moles. People with light skin are at higher risk as are those with poor immune function such as from medications or HIV/AIDS. Diagnosis is by biopsy.


Onychomycosis, also known as tinea unguium, is a fungal infection of the nail. This condition may affect toenails or fingernails, but toenail infections are particularly common. Treatment may be based on the signs. Treatment may be with the medication terbinafine. It occurs in about 10 percent of the adult population. It is the most common disease of the nails and constitutes about half of all nail abnormalities.

Welcome Message from Editor-in-chief

Greetings from Dermatology and Dermatologic Diseases

On behalf of the editorial board members, it is my great pleasure, and honour to welcome you in the Dermatology and Dermatologic Diseases, which is an international peer-reviewed journal published by OMICS International.
It is the 4th volume of Dermatology and its diseases related to that, for which I have given the responsibility of Editor in chief. Over the past 4 years the progress of the journal has been appreciable, mostly in maintaining its place as one of the leading dermatological publications. The Journal has acted always with the utmost academic integrity, which combined with his breadth and depth of understanding of research methods and clinical issues in people and a prodigious appetite for hard work makes a hard act to follow. The journal will continue to publish high quality research on Dermatology and Dermatologic Diseases in near future. Original research articles from the bulk of the content, with systematic reviews an important sub-section. The methodological quality of such publications has improved dramatically over the last few years, influenced by reporting standards guidelines. I will personally encourage all authors to work to these standards. Such emphasis on methodological rigour is vital to ensure that conclusions reached from publications contained in the journal are valid and reliable.

Peer review remains a vital component of our assessment of submitted articles. There is strong consensus that, accepted articles are often improved by peer review after referees' comments and criticisms are dealt with and this explicit appraisal process also helps to engender trust of the reader. It is important to note that, the journal is having a good balance of different article type within the journal. I am keen to encourage publication of high-quality evidence-based guidelines in Dermatology and Dermatologic Diseases. Such articles are widely read (and downloaded), can have major impact on dermatological and dermatopathological practices, and also tend to be highly cited to the benefit of our Impact Factor 0.14 with Index Copernicus Value: 61.93.

The use of electronic media is now a vital component of dissemination, providing a vehicle for wider international discussion in letters to the editor, and providing a mechanism for publishing complex detailed appendices that are of interest to only a small proportion of readers. I am fortunate to be supported by a highly effective team; including Editorial Coordiantor in the editorial office who ‘pulls the whole show together’. The current group of Associate Editors and editors work incredibly hard particularly in the assessment and processing of submitted articles. Links with our publisher OMICS International are excellent, ensuring we are at the forefront of developments in the specialised domain of publishing. The journal is also backed up by a stellar cast of experts on our international advisory board, which comprises individuals of the highest standing in dermatological medicine; we are fortunate to have them as ambassadors for the journal.

Lastly I should thank all our submitting authors, who have toiled in the production of their work, and have chosen Dermatology and Dermatologic Diseases as the journal they would like to publish in. Sadly due to pressures on publication ‘space’ less than 20% of submissions are eventually accepted for publication, so inevitably many of those submitting will be disappointed by rejection. We have created this publication with the intention of providing a space for the generation of knowledge, dialogue, critique, debate, and collaboration among an international community of child, youth, family and community practitioners and scholars and aims to keep scientists, clinicians and medical practitioners, researchers, and students informed and updated on the ongoing research in the relevant area. The immediacy of e-based publication makes it possible for us all to be fully connected to each other and to developments in our field and to be directly involved in ongoing knowledge construction.

The journal is independent of corporate demands and the overlay of profit-making and profit-taking and we can therefore invite you to be full participants in the creative process that we are undertaking together. I welcome original research, theoretical contributions, reviews of the literature, critical commentaries, case studies, book reviews, and works-in progress. In each of this areas there are different journals dealing with very specific aspects intended for a limited audience. Similarly, interdisciplinary researches are often difficult to publish in specialized journals and part of the aim of Dermatology and Dermatologic Diseases is to capture high-quality works that doesn’t clearly fall within the scope of other journals. This open-minded stance toward the scope of the journal allows overcoming knowledge fragmentation and the integration between apparently different topics providing the reader with a global view on the topic of interest.

Dermatology and Dermatologic Diseases publishes reports describing original research on all aspects of dermatology and its related diseases. Topics include Cutaneous condition, Psoriasis, Acne, Skin cancer, Melanoma, Skin rash, Skin infection, Vitiligo, Wart, Atopic dermatitis, Rosacea, Contact dermatitis, Alopecia areata, Seborrheic dermatitis, Erythema, Lichen planus, Pemphigus, Basal-cell carcinoma, Melanocytic nevus, Lupus erythematosus, Hyperpigmentation, Tinea versicolor, Nevus, Bullous pemphigoid, Melasma, Nodule, Keloid, Seborrheic keratosis, Tinea corporis, Hyperhidrosis, Ichthyosis, Molluscum contagiosum, Actinic keratosis, Hidradenitis suppurativa, Lichen simplex chronicus, Keratosis pilaris, Skin tag, Pityriasis rosea, Dermatomyositis, Folliculitis, Acanthosis nigricans, Stasis dermatitis, Perioral dermatitis, Nummular dermatitis, Purpura, Erythema nodosum, Nail disease, Prurigo, Erythroderma, Epidermolysis bullosa, Allergic contact dermatitis and many more.

As the editor in chief, I am delighted to be a part of this new interdisciplinary initiative, which I believe is exactly the type of platform needed to highlight and broaden skin, nails, hair and its diseases into widespread acceptance with the highest values of scientific integrity to which the Dermatology and Dermatologic Diseases is inspired.

You can be our Editorial board member (or) Reviewer to our Journal, If you are interested, you are requested to send a recent passport size photo (to display in our website) and your C.V, Biography (150 words), a short editorial on any of your research interest for our records.

We are delighted that you are joining us as readers and hope you will also join us as contributors.

Hsuan-Hsiang Chen
Jing-Mei General Hospital, Taiwan

Major Disease Statistics
*2018 Journal Impact Factor was established by dividing the number of articles published in 2016 and 2017 with the number of times they are cited in 2018 based on Google Scholar Citation Index database. If 'X' is the total number of articles published in 2016 and 2017, and 'Y' is the number of times these articles were cited in indexed journals during 2018 then, journal impact factor = Y/X

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