AIDS is a syndrome caused by the HIV virus. It is when a person’s immune system is too weak to fight off many infections, and develops when the HIV infection is very advanced. This is the last stage of HIV infection where the body can no longer defend itself and may develop various diseases, infections and if left untreated, death. There is currently no cure for HIV or AIDS. However, with the right treatment and support, people can live long and healthy lives with HIV.
1. It may cause influenza-like illness, tuberculosis, opportunistic infections and tumors, pneumocystis pneumonia, severe weight loss, Kaposi's sarcoma. The time period usually ranges from 6 months (rarely) to 15+ years. HIV infection passes through a series of steps or stages before it turns into AIDS. These stages of infection as outlined in 1993 by the Centers for Disease Control. Seroconversion illness – this occurs in 1 to 6 weeks after acquiring the infection. The feeling is similar to a bout of flu.
2. Asymptomatic infection – After seroconversion, virus levels are low and replication continues slowly. CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels are normal. This stage has no symptoms and may persist for years together.
3. Persistent generalised lymphadenopathy (PGL) – The lymph nodes in these patients are swollen for three months or longer and not due to any other cause.
4. Symptomatic infection – This stage manifests with symptoms. In addition, there may be opportunistic infections. This collection of symptoms and signs is referred to as the AIDS-related complex (ARC) and is regarded as a prodrome or precursor to AIDS.
In 2010 there were 951 (2.5 per 100,000) HIV cases diagnosed in Poland, including 28 among non-Polish citizens; the total number of AIDS cases was 171 (0.45 per 100,000) and there were 53 (0.14 per 100,000) deaths of AIDS patients. Among the newly diagnosed HIV cases an increase of the share of infections acquired through homosexual contact between men (MSM) (from 34.2% to 51.9% of cases with known transmission route) was observed as compared to 2009.The first HIV/ AIDS cases in Poland were diagnosed in the mid-1980, and the outbreak in injecting drug users was first observed in 1989. For many years the HIV epidemic in Poland was driven by injecting drug use. In this study we examine the trends in the HIV/ AIDS epidemic based on the surveillance data for 1999-2004
The idea that antiretroviral therapy (ART) could be used not only to reduce morbidity and mortality among HIV-positive people, but also to prevent onward sexual transmission of HIV, by reducing the infectiousness of HIV-positive people, is not new. The ability of ART to suppress HIV RNA is well documented [2-4] and many observational studies have found a strong association between plasma HIV-RNA viral load and the risk of onward transmission. Currently, in Poland the number of women infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still increasing. The majority of them are in the reproductive age. It is well known that mother-to-child transmission of HIV can occur during pregnancy, delivery and postnatally through breastfeeding. The risk of transmission is related to maternal health, obstetric factors and infant prematurity.