Craniopharyngioma is a type of brain tumor derived from pituitary gland embryonic tissue that occurs most commonly in children but also in men and women in their 50s and 60s. People may present with bitemporal inferior quadrantanopia leading to bitemporal hemianopia, as the tumor may compress the optic chiasm. Craniopharyngiomas are typically very slow growing tumors. They arise from the cells along the pituitary stalk, specifically from nests of odontogenic (tooth-forming) epithelium within the suprasellar/diencephalic region and, therefore, contain deposits of calcium, which are evident on an x-ray. Balance disorder, Dry skin, Fatigue, Fever, Headache, Hypersomnia, Lethargy, Myxedema, Nausea etc. include is symptoms.
Craniopharyngioma is low – grade malignant tumour with high survival rate. Its incidence is 0.5–2.0 cases per million persons per year. 30–50% of all cases occur in the childhood. The tumour location leads to numerous complications like deficits of pituitary function, impairment of vision, neuropsychological deficits and obesity. Excess body fat is observed in 40–50% of craniopharyngioma patients.
Treatment generally consists of subfrontal or transsphenoidal excision. Surgery using the transsphenoidal route is often performed by a joint team of ENT and neurosurgeons. Because of the location of the craniopharyngioma near the brain and skullbase, a surgical navigation system might be used to verify the position of surgical tools during the operation. Additional radiotherapy is also used if total removal is not possible.
The ongoing researches in Poland on craniopharyngioma include: Cognitive and social functioning in children and adolescents after the removal of craniopharyngioma, Practical approach to childhood craniopharyngioma, Two histologically different tumours in a neonate born from an assisted reproductive technology pregnancy.