Dystonia is a movement disorder in which a person's muscles contract uncontrollably. The contraction causes the affected body part to twist involuntarily, resulting in repetitive movements or abnormal postures. Dystonia can affect one muscle, a muscle group, or the entire body. Dystonia affects about 1% of the population, and women are more prone to it than men. Most cases of dystonia do not have a specific cause. Dystonia seems to be related to a problem in the basal ganglia. That's the area of the brain that is responsible for initiating muscle contractions. The problem involves the way the nerve cells communicate.
Dystonia can't be cured, but doctors can provide you with several treatments to improve some of your symptoms. Botulinum toxin type A and Some forms of early-onset dystonia respond to levodopa and carbidopa (Parcopa, Sinemet) a medication combination that increases brain dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved with muscle movement.
The crude incidence of generalized dystonia was 2 per million persons per year, and for all focal dystonias combined, 24 per million per year. The crude prevalence rate was 34 per million persons for generalized dystonia and 295 per million persons for all focal dystonias. Recent studies found that crude annual prevalence of 15.2 cases per 100,000 individuals, the majority of whom had focal dystonia at a rate of 11.7 cases per 100,000 individuals.