Exposure depends on frequency and intimacy of interaction between colonized and susceptible individuals to disseminate bacteria from nasopharynx. Meningococci overcome host defenses and bind to the microvillous surface of nonciliated columnar mucosal cells of the nasopharynx, where they multiply (i.e, colonize).
Despite treatment with appropriate antimicrobial agents and optimal medical care, the overall case fatality rates have remained relatively stable over the past 20 years, at 9 to 12%, with a rate of up to 40 % among patients with meningococcal sepsis.Eleven percent to 19% of survivors of meningococcal disease have sequelae, such as hearing loss, neurological disability, or loss of a limb.
Meningococcal disease can be treated with antibiotics. It is critical to start treatment early.Pili are the major adhesins that may target the CD46 receptor, a membrane cofactor protein; subsequently, the opacity-associated proteins, Opa and Opc, bind to CD66 and heparan sulfate proteoglycan receptors, respectively. Various factors of transmission and acquisition have been dealt earlier in this article.
Major research on disease:
Global incidence of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease: a systematic review.Meningococcus bacteria are spread through the exchange of respiratory and throat secretions like spit (e.g., by living in close quarters, kissing). Meningococcal disease can be treated with antibiotics, but quick medical attention is extremely important.