Pathophysiology: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. It is also called oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA is especially troublesome in hospitals, prisons, and nursing homes, where patients with open wounds, invasive devices, and weakened immune systems are at greater risk of nosocomial infection than the general public.S. aureus most commonly colonizes under the anterior nares.
Statistics: The proportion of MRSA isolates was 22.7% (n = 208) ranging from 3.7 to 63.1% in individual hospitals. In 32 (82%) centers, the proportion of MRSA exceeded 10%. The proportion of MRSA was higher in tertiary-care institutions (average 33%) than in secondary care (average 19%).
Treatment: Both CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA are resistant to traditional anti-staphylococcal beta-lactam antibiotics, such as cephalexin. CA-MRSA has a greater spectrum of antimicrobial susceptibility, including to sulfa drugs (like co-trimoxazole/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), tetracyclines (like doxycycline and minocycline) and clindamycin (for osteomyelitis) but the drug of choice for treating CA-MRSA is now believed to be vancomycin.
Major Research: Many antibiotics against MRSA are in phase II and phase III clinical trials. e.g. Phase III : ceftobiprole, ceftaroline, dalbavancin, telavancin and others. Phase II : nemonoxacin.Development of Aurograb, a treatment intended to complement antibiotics used to treat MRSA. It has been reported that maggot therapy to clean out necrotic tissue of MRSA infection has been successful. Studies in diabetic patients reported significantly shorter treatment times than those achieved with standard treatments.