Pathophysiology: Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as a form of TB infection caused by bacteria that are resistant to treatment with at least two of the most powerful first-line anti-TB drugs, isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP).Development of resistance is associated with poor management of cases. Drug resistance testing occurs in only 9% of TB cases worldwide. Without testing to determine drug resistance profiles, MDR- or XDR-TB patients may develop resistance to additional drugs.
Statistics: Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new and relapse tuberculosis cases arising in a given year, expressed as the rate per 100,000 population. All forms of TB are included, including cases in people living with HIV. In Poland the incidence of Tuberculosis reported from 2001-2005 is 22 cases, and from 2006-2011 is also reported as 22 cases and in 2015 the cases wetre reported as 23 cases.
Treatment of active tuberculosis includes a combination of several drugs including antibacterial and antibiotic medications. Medication treatment can last a long time, as long as six to 12 months, and needs to be taken exactly as directed to be effective in curing tuberculosis.
Major Research: The identification of markers of TB strains that are characteristic of major M. tuberculosis strains families, thus corresponding to more adapted bacilli. Many of them correspond to SNPs affecting DNA repair genes. This opened the way to study genes involved in DNA repair and mycobacterial genome stability. New M. tuberculosis strain markers are being used to differentiate strains within major families and allow the detection of outbreaks.