Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms which occur because the tiny blood vessels (the glomeruli) in the kidney become leaky. This allows protein to leave the body in large amounts. A written questionnaire was sent to 118 adults treated for INS in childhood. In 61 (51.7%) responders (aged 26.0 ± 6.2 years, range 18 - 51.5 years), we used available medical records to evaluate age at the onset of INS, number of INS relapses below 18 years of age, response to corticosteroids (CS), renal biopsy findings, and immunosuppressive treatment as well as questionnaire to evaluate the number and treatment of INS relapses above 18 years of age, co-morbidities, age at menarche, marital status, offspring, educational status, and occupation.
Patients with nephrotic syndrome are from all age groups, although in children there is an increased risk of the disorder between the ages of 18 months and four years. While the urine will reveal significant quantities of protein, the blood will reveal abnormally low amounts of circulating proteins. Blood tests will also reveal a high level of cholesterol. In order to diagnose one of the kidney disorders which cause nephrotic syndrome, a small sample of the kidney will need to be removed for examination. This biopsy can be done with a long, very thin needle which is inserted through the skin under the ribs.