Lymphoma is cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The lymph system is part of the immune system, which helps the body fight infection and disease. Because lymph tissue is found all through the body, lymphoma can begin almost anywhere. The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The 5-year survival rates for the different lymphoma subtypes in children (0-14 year) are slightly higher than in adolescents (Figure 32 and Figure 33). The 5-year survival rates for Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma are 99% and 90% in children. In adolescents they are 97% and 86% respectively. Burkitt lymphoma (IIc) is rarely seen in adolescents and the number of cases are too Low for a survival analysis.
Lymphomas are types of cancer derived from lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Lymphomas are treated by combinations of chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies (CD20), immunotherapy, radiation, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Progress in understanding DNA changes in lymphoma has already provided improved and highly sensitive tests for detecting this disease. Such tests can identify lymphoma cells based on changes such as chromosome translocations or rearrangements or specific gene mutations. Some of these tests are already in use, and others are being developed.