Stuttering is an interruption of the normal flow of speech, which takes on many different patterns. Commonly, it involves either saying a string of repeated sounds or making abnormal pauses during speech. In early childhood, stuttering is sometimes part of normal speech development. In fact, about 5% of all young children go through a brief period of stuttering when they are learning to talk. Stuttering typically is first noticed between the ages of 2 and 5. It usually goes away on its own within a matter of months. In a small number of children (around 1%), stuttering continues and may get worse. Boys are more likely to stutter than girls.
In addition, normal problems with fluency tend to come and go, or happen only at certain times (such as when a child is tired or excited), but true stuttering is present most of the time. Once a child begins to stutter, he or she may feel embarrassed, self-conscious or anxious when asked to speak. The child may find it hard to socialize with friends and also may intentionally avoid situations where talking is expected, such as telephone calls, classroom discussions and school plays.
Pneumococcal bacteremia (bloodstream infection) cases total more than 50,000 each year in the United States (bacteremia occurs in approximately 25% of all pneumococcal pneumonia cases). The case fatality rate for those with pneumonia complicated by bacteremia is approximately 20%, but may be as high as 60% for elderly patients. Pneumococcal meningitis cases total about 3,000 each year in the United States, and the mortality rate is 10-30%. Pneumococcal pneumonia causes an estimated 175,000 hospitalizations each year in the United States, and has a case fatality rate of 5-7% (in the elderly this figure is higher). Pneumococcus is the cause of up to 36% of community-acquired pneumonia cases, and 50% of community-acquired cases that require hospitalization.