Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare, life-threatening illness caused by toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and type B enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. TSS symptoms include high fever, low blood pressure, sun-burn like rash, fatigue, diarrhea that manifest within 8-12 hours after infection. Skin peeling occurs one to two weeks after the eruption, especially on the palms or soles of the feet. TSS is an extremely rare condition. It can affect men, women and children. The risk of disease is greater in post-partum women and menstruating women. The average incidence of TSS is 1 per 100,000 individuals.
Treatments of TSS include cleaning of wounds and remove any foreign bodies, IV fluids administration and antibiotic therapy. The usually prescribed antibiotics are naficillin, oxacillin, and first generation cephalosporin. They are administered intravenously in combination with clindamycin or vancomycin. Many recent studies are directed at development of either monoclonal antibodies against TSST-1 or other peptides to block the ability of bacterial toxins and thereby preventing the disease.