Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by abnormalities in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. The causes of type 2 diabetes are multi-factorial and include both genetic and environmental elements that affect beta-cell function and tissue (muscle, liver, adipose tissue, pancreas) insulin sensitivity. Although there is considerable debate as to the relative contributions of beta-cell dysfunction and reduced insulin sensitivity to the pathogenesis of diabetes, it is generally agreed that both these factors play important roles.
Diabetes was diagnosed in 1000 individuals (6.8%), including 518 men (7.4%) and 482 women (6.2%). IFG was detected in 1401 individuals (9.5%), including 864 men (12.4%) and 537 women (6.9%). Incidence of diabetes increases with age: in men from 0.7% in those aged 20–29 years to 16.3% in those aged >60 years; in women from 0.5% in the youngest age group to 17.8% in the oldest group. Incidence of diabetes in Poland varies between the provinces from 5.3% to 9% among men and from 4.2% to 7.5% among women.
Treatments for type 2 diabetes focus on: controlling blood sugar, achieving a healthy weight, improving activity levels. Both lifestyle changes and medical treatments can help to control the disease. Monitoring blood sugar is an essential part of diabetes treatment. People with diabetes need to monitor and record their blood sugar on a regular basis. Monitoring frequency varies.Type 2 Diabetes afflicts close to 250 million people in world today, 27 million in the United States alone.