alexa Preparation and Characterization of Silica Nanoparticles by Wet Mechanical Attrition of White and Yellow Sand | Open Access Journals
ISSN: 2157-7439
Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
Like us on:
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Preparation and Characterization of Silica Nanoparticles by Wet Mechanical Attrition of White and Yellow Sand

Magda A Akl1*, Hesham F Aly2, Hesham M A Soliman3, Aref M. E. Abd ElRahman3 and Ahmed I. Abd-Elhamid3

1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

2Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority,13759, Egypt

3Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Borg El arab, P. O. Box 21934, Alexandria, Egypt

*Corresponding Author:
Magda A Akl
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science
Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
Tel: 20-5022-42388
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: July 08, 2013; Accepted Date: November 28, 2013; Published Date: November 30, 2013

Citation: Akl MA, Aly HF, Soliman HMA, Aref ME, ElRahman A, et al. (2013) Preparation and Characterization of Silica Nanoparticles by Wet Mechanical Attrition of White and Yellow Sand. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 4:183. doi:

Copyright: © 2013 Akl MA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology

Abstract

Mechanical alloying is a simple and useful processing technique that is now being employed in the production of nanocrystals and/or nanoparticles from all material classes. In the present work, preparation of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) by wet mechanical attrition of white and yellow sand using a lab scaled ball mill was investigated. The different experimental parameters affecting the milling process were thoroughly studied such as the milling period, water volume and the initial size of sand particles. Analysis of the results obtained revealed that SiO2 NPs with particle size 22-33 nm and 38-48 nm could successfully be prepared from original white and yellow sand, respectively. The optimum experimental parameters to obtain these SiO2 NPs are 25 g original sand particle, 50 ml water, 113 g media weight and 8 hr milling period at 400 rpm mill speed. The SiO2 NPs obtained were characterized by SEM, XRD, EDS and FTIR. The results obtained showed high homogeneity of the produced spherical SiO2 NPs. These SiO2 NPs have good potentials for use in industry such as their use as additive materials in ultrahigh performance concrete for the next development. Based on economic value, the produced SiO2 NPs have excellent potential to be developed.

Keywords

Nanosilica, attrition, SEM, XDR, EDS, FTIR

Introduction

Nanoparticles from mechanical attrition are produced by a “top-down” process, unlike nanoparticles produced from “bottomup” processes such as self-assembly and template synthesis. These nanoparticles are formed in a mechanical device, generically referred to as a “mill,” in which energy is imparted to a course-grained material to effect a reduction in particle size. The resulting particulate powders can exhibit nanostructural characteristics on at least two levels. First, the particles themselves, which normally possess a distribution of sizes, can be “nanoparticles” if their average characteristic dimension (diameter for spherical particles) is less than 100 nm [1]. Second, many of the materials milled in mechanical attrition devices are highly crystalline, such that the crystallite (grain) size after milling is often between 1 and 10 nm in diameter. Such materials are termed “nanocrystalline” [2]. The sizes of the nanocrystals and the nanoparticles may or may not be the same. In some of the nanostructured materials literature, particularly that involving bottom-up processes, the term “nanocrystal” is reserved for crystalline particles with low concentrations of defects, such as are found in single crystals, whereas “nanoparticles” are those nanoscale particles that contain gross internal grain boundaries, fractures, or internal disorder, whether the crystals they contain are nanocrystalline or not [3].

The importance of nanoparticles lies in their inherently large surface-to-volume ratio relative to that of larger particles. These high surface areas can potentially improve catalytic processes and interfacially driven phenomena such as wetting and adhesion. Nanoparticles have the potential for use in structural and device applications in which enhanced mechanical and physical characteristics are required. As for the internal structure of the nanoparticles, it has been found that nanocrystalline materials have comparative advantages over their microcrystalline

counterparts in hardness, fracture toughness, and low temperature ductility [4,5]. As new methods for surface modification and post attrition processing of nanoparticles are developed, the potential applications for them continue to grow.

SiO2 NPs are used in many industries such as semiconductor technology, optical communication, removal of heavy metals and dyes from water, catalysts, pigments and pharmacy industry.

SiO2 NPs have been prepared by several techniques sol –gel process [6-12], microemulsion [13-16], oxidation of tetraethyl-orthosilicate TEOS in the bench-scale diffusion flame reactor [17], an interdigital micromixer and a batch reactor, have been used to prepare silica nanoparticles [18]. Recently, encapsulation of water insoluble drugs in mesoporous silica nanoparticles using supercritical carbon dioxide has been described [19].

A literature survey revealed that little information is available regarding the preparation of SiO2 NPs by wet mechanical attrition of white and yellow sand. The aim of the present study is to throw light on the preparation and characterization SiO2 NPs by wet mechanical attrition white and yellow sand based on their following peculiar properties: 1) they have mechanic strength to enhance the usable life. 2) The SiO2 NPs possess nano-scaled size larger specific surface area allowing the easy adsorption of different environmental pollutants 3) the raw materials are low-cost and the synthetic approach is simple, which make these nanoparticles potentially commercializable.

In the present work SiO2 NPs are obtained by wet mechanical attrition of white and yellow sand. The prepared SiO2 NPs were characterized by SEM, XRD, EDS and FTIR. The different experimental factors affecting the milling process were thoroughly investigated. The proposed method is particularly suitable for large quantity production, relatively simple with a few operation parameters, high homogenous product and low cost.

Materials

All chemicals were of analytical grade and used as received. All required solutions were prepared using de-ionized water, provided from a Milli-Q (Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA) purification system. White sand (SSi1) was obtained from Suez Company for Minerals, Egypt. Yellow sand (SSi2) was obtained from Borg Al-Arab desert. The two samples used without any further purification Analytical balance of type “Sartorius-GP 3202” was used to weight sand. A Vibratory Sieve Shaker of type “Retsch -AS200” basic was used for sieving of white sand. Milling of sieved white and yellow sand was performed using a “Retsch-PM400” planetary ball mill.

Preparations

Sieving of sand

100 gm of white or yellow sand was placed on a vibratory sieve shaker for 10 min at an amplitude of 100 mm. The sieving weight for each size fraction is given in Table 1.

Size (µm) Weight (gm)
2000-500 4.5
500-250 46.5
250-125 47.65
125-63 1.05
63-45 0.15

Table 1: The weight (gm) for each size (μm) of white sand after Sieving. (SiO2 weight = 100gm Amplitude = 100mm time =10 min).

Milling of white and yellow sand

25 gm of white or yellow sand was placed in a laboratory scaled ball mill. Samples were taken from a well mixed batch. Steel balls were used as milling media, steel veal was used as reactor and the ball mill was adjusted at 400 rpm on a “continuous mode”. After every run, a certain amount of milled particles was suspended in an enough amount of double distilled water. A drop of the suspended particles was placed on a glass slide to dry on air to be characterized.

Characterization

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM): The surface morphologies of nanoparticles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) “Jeol Japan -JSM-636 OLA”

X-ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD): The crystallinity of particles was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) “Shimadzu, Japan XRD- 7000”

Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS): The elemental analysis was achieved using SEM with EDS unit.

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR): Various vibration modes were performed by Fourier transmission infra red spectroscopy (FTIR)” Shimadzu, Japan-8400s”.

Results and Discussion

Milling of white sand

Effect of milling period: The influence of milling period on the particle size of 25 g (150-250 μm) of SSi1 in 50 ml water using 113 g media weight and mill speed of 400 rpm was investigated. After 6 hr milling, the particle size of the dispersed silica particles was measured by SEM. At low magnification, 2500 X, large particles were observed in the range 0.57 to 2.37 μm, Figure 1 A (a & b). At higher magnification, 50000 X, SiO2 NPs were observed in the range 23-38 nm. Under similar conditions and increasing the milling period to 8, 16 and 40 hr low magnification, large particles were not observed. At SEM with higher magnification, Figure 1B, C and D, the particle size in the range, 23-38 nm, at 8 hr, 32-58 nm, at 16 hr and 16-48 nm at 40 hr. The increase in the particle size at 16 hr is due to reverse milling [20]. Eight hours milling period was used for the subsequent milling processes. The relation between the milling period and the obtained SiO2 NPs is represented in Figure 2.

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-sem-images-effect-milling

Figure 1a: SEM images of effect of milling period (hr) on SiO2 NPs size
(Sand weight: 25 g; Water volume: 50 ml; Media weight: 113 g; Mill speed: 400rpm; milling period 6 hr)

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-sem-images-effect-milling

Figure 1b: SEM images of effect of milling period (hr) on the size of SiO2 NPs (Sand weight: 25 g; Water volume: 50 ml; Media weight: 113 g; Mill speed: 400rpm; milling period 8 hr)

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-sem-images-effect-milling

Figure 1c: SEM images of effect of milling period (hr) on SiO2 particle size (Sand weight: 25 g; Water volume: 50 ml; Media weight: 113 g; Mill speed: 400 rpm; milling period 6 hr)

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-sem-images-effect-milling

Figure 1d: SEM images of effect of milling period (hr) on SiO2 NPs size (Sand weight: 25 g; Water volume: 50 ml; Media weight: 113 g; Mill speed: 400 rpm; milling period 6 hr)

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-effect-milling-period-water

Figure 2: Effect of milling period on SiO2 NPs (sand wt. 25 g, water volume 50 ml, media wt.113 g, mill speed 400 rpm)

Effect of water volume: Water was used as a wetting medium. The dependence of SiO2 NPs on the water volume at milling period: 8hr, sand weight: 25 gm, media weight: 113 g and mill speed: 400 rpm was investigated. Figure 3 shows the low magnification 2500 X SEM of the particles obtained which indicates that with increase the volume of water from 0 to 25 ml the large particles break down into smaller particles with range particles size of 0.51-3.48 μm, 0.22-2.95 μm upon using 0 ml and 25, respectively. Further increase of the volume of water to 50ml the large particles disappear. At higher magnification, 50000 X SEM, the SiO2 NPs were seen with average particles size of 22-51 nm, 22-47 nm and 23-38 nm upon using 0, 25 and 50 ml water, respectively. By addition of water the flow ability of the suspension was improved and there was, no longer, adherent particles to the wall of the vial nor the surface of the balls.

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-sem-images-effect-water

Figure 3: SEM images of effect of water volume SiO2 NPs (Milling period: 8 hr, Sand weight: 25 g, Media weight: 113 g, Mill speed: 400 rpm.) A) Water volume = 0 ml, B) 25 ml and C) 50 ml

Effect of initial particle size of sand : The effect of initial sand particle size on the size of resulting SiO2 NPs was investigated. Three samples, each 25 g, were subjected to milling: original sand sample, sample with size 125-250 μm and the third sample was in the range 250-500 μm. 25 g of each of the three samples was milled for 8 hr in 50 ml water using 113 g media weight and 400 rpm mill speed. The particle size obtained from each sample was compared with the particle size obtained from the original sample. It was observed that SiO2 NPs of particle size, 22-30 nm, 25-38 nm and 23-38 nm can be obtained upon using sand of initial particle size between 500 -250 μm, 250 -125 μm and the original sand sample, respectively, Fig. 4. It can be concluded that the initial particle size has no effect on the size of the produced SiO2 NPs. The relation between initial particle size and SiO2 NPs is represented in Figure 5. 25 g of sand was used in all subsequent experiments.

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-sem-images-effect-particle

Figure 4: SEM images of effect of initial white sand particle size on the size of SiO2 NPs, Milling period: 8hr, Sand weight: 25 g, Media weight: 113 g, Water volume: 50 ml, Mill speed: 400 rpm).
A) (250 -125 μm), B) (500 -250 μm) and C) original size

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-effect-initial-particle-size

Figure 5: Effect of initial particle size on SiO2 NPs (milling period 8 hr, water volume 50 ml, media wt.113 g, mill speed 400 rpm).

Milling of yellow sand

The optimum conditions of the previous experimental factors (milling period: 8 hr, sand weight: 25 g, media weight: 113 g, water volume: 50 ml and mill speed: 400 rpm) were applied to yellow sand (SSi2). The SEM images obtained, Figure 6 shows that SiO2 NPs with size that ranged between 30-47 nm can be obtained by milling of yellow sand.

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-sem-images-yellow-sand

Figure 6: SEM images of the yellow sand particle size obtained at Milling period: 8 hr, Sand weight: 25 g, Water volume: 50 ml, Media weight: 113 g and mill speed: 400 rpm.

Characterization of SiO2 NPs

XRD: Figures 7 and 8 show the XRD pattern of SiO2 NPs of the milled white and yellow sand, respectively. Typical silica characteristic is observed with an intense sharp peak centered at 2θ = 26o which indicates that the samples are crystalline with crystal size 26.776 nm and 25.455 nm for the milled white and yellow sand respectively

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-xrd-pattern-silica-white

Figure 7: XRD pattern of the silica obtained by milling of white sand.

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-xrd-pattern-silica-yellow

Figure 8: XRD pattern of the silica obtained by milling of yellow sand.

EDS: The EDS of white and yellow sand before milling is represented in Figures 9 and 10. The data of EDS of white and yellow sand before milling are shown in Tables 2, 3, respectively. The EDS measurements of the milled white and yellow sand show that the whole area of silica obtained was around stoichiometric composition (% At. Si = 32.90 and O = 66.30) and (% At. Si = 30.27 and O = 65.07), respectively, as shown in Figures 11 and 12, respectively. The iron appearing in the sample of white sand, Table 4, analyzed after milling insures that the sample was contaminated by iron from the stainless steel jar or the balls of the ball mill used. Also, the increase in iron content in SiO2 NPs obtained from milling of yellow sand from 0.15% to 2.15, Table 5, can be attributed to the same reasons.

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-eds-analysis-white-sand

Figure 9: The EDS analysis for white sand before the milling.

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-eds-analysis-yellow-sand

Figure 10: EDS analysis for yellow sand from Borg Al-Arab desert before milling.

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-eds-analysis-sio2-white

Figure 11: The EDS analysis for SiO2 obtained by milling of white sand.

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-eds-analysis-sio2-yellow

Figure 12: The EDS analysis for SiO2 NPs obtained by milling of yellow sand

Element KeV Mass% Error% At% compound Mass % cation K
OK 0.525 56.23 0.44 69.28 58.7225
Sik 1.739 43.77 0.28 30.72 41.2775
Total   100.00   100.00  

Table 2: Elemental analysis of white sand before milling.

Element KeV Mass% Error% At% compound Mass % cation K
OK 0.525 4 0.47 64.86 51.5784
AlK 1.486 0.82 0.23 0.62 0.7040
TiK 4.508 0.45 0.46 0.19 0.4401
Sik 1.739 43.77 0.28 32.90 43.7741
FeK 6.398 0.42 080 0.15 0.4174
Total   100.00   100.00  

Table 3: Elemental analysis of yellow sand brfore milling.

Element KeV Mass% Error% At% compound Mass % cation K
OK 0.525 52.26 0.44 66.30 54.0522
Sik 1.739 43.77 0.28 32.90 43.7741
FeK 6.398 2.21 0.88 0.80 2.1738
Total   100.00   100.00  

Table 4: Elemental analysis of white sand after milling.

Element KeV Mass% Error% At% compound Mass % cation K
OK 0.525 49.85 0.40 65.07 52.2353
AlK 1.486 2.01 0.21 1.56 1.6475
TiK 4.508 0.45 0.46 0.19 0.4401
Sik 1.739 41.38 0.21 30.77 39.2019
FeK 6.398 5.62 0.70 2.10 5.7711
Total   100.00   100.00  

Table 5: Elemental analysis of yellow sand after milling.

FTIR: The FTIR spectra of the silica obtained from the milling of white sand and yellow sand Figures 13 and 14, show common bands assigned to various vibrations in the solid, respectively. The analysis of these spectra revealed the weak broad band centered at around 3440.77 cm-1 for SSi1 and strong broad band centered at around 3435.95 cm-1 for SSi2 to correspond to the overlapping of the O-H stretching bands of hydrogen-bonded water molecules (H-O-H...H) and SiO-H stretching of surface silanols hydrogen-bonded to molecular water (SiO-H...H2O) [21]. The weak absorption band for SSi1 and The medium intense absorption band for SSi2 corresponding to the adsorbed water molecules deformation vibrations appear at 1615.27 and 1633.59 cm-1, [22], respectively. The medium broad band at 1448.44 cm-1 revealed to symmetric and asymmetric bending of C-H bond of –CH2-CH2- and very intense broad band at 1161.07 cm-1 assigned to the longitudinal optical (LO) modes of the Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching vibrations [23] which found in SSi2 and absence in SSi1. The very intense and broad band appearing at 1082.96 cm-1 and 1083.92 assigned to the transversal optical (TO) modes of the Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching vibrations [23] for SSi1 and SSi2 respectively. On the other hand, the symmetric stretching vibrations of Si-O-Si appear at 785.94 cm-1 and its bending mode appears at 459.63 cm-1 and 479.28 cm-1 [24] for SSi1 and SSi2 respectively. The weak shoulder band at around 698.63 cm-1 and 692.40 cm-1 for SSi1 and SSi2 respectively is assigned to Si-O stretching of the SiO2 [25]. This difference in spectra between SSi1 and SSi2 may attributed to the impurities present in yellow sand such as Al and Ti.

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-ftir-spectra-milling-white

Figure 13: FT-IR spectra of SiO2 NPs obtained by milling of white.

nanomedicine-nanotechnology-ftir-spectra-milling-yellow

Figure 14: FT-IR spectra of SiO2 NPs obtained by milling of yellow sand .

Conclusion

Mechanical alloying is a simple and useful processing technique that is now being employed in the production of nanocrystals and/or nanoparticles from all material classes. Although a variety of mechanical alloying devices exist, the high-energy ball mill is typically used to produce particles in the nanoscale size range. Particle size reduction is effected over time in the high-energy ball mill, as is a reduction in crystallite grain size, both of which reach minimum values at extended milling times.

Contamination from milling media (e.g., stainless steel vials and balls) is a serious problem that has not yet been thoroughly investigated. Despite these difficulties, MA is more widely used than ever and continues to be applied to the formation of nanoparticles and nanocrystalline structures in an ever-increasing variety of metals, ceramics, and polymers.

In the present work, SiO2 NPs with particle size range of 23-38 nm were prepared by milling white and yellow sand in wet conditions using water as wetting agent for 8hr and 400rpm mill speed. The SiO2 NPs obtained are characterized using SEM, X-ray diffraction, EDS and FTIR. The results showed that the SiO2 NPs have spherical shape and with crystalline structure.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Recommended Conferences

  • Nano Congress for Next Generation
    August 31-September 01, 2017 Brussels,Belgium
  • Graphene & 2D Materials
    September 14-15, 2017 Edinburgh, Scotland
  • Graphene & 2D Materials
    November 6-7, 2017 Frankfurt, Germany
  • World Congress on Nanoscience and Nano Technology
    October 16-17, 2017 Dubai, UAE
  • World Medical Nanotechnology Congress
    October 18-19, 2017 Osaka, Japan
  • Nanoscienceand Molecular Nanotechnology
    Nov 06-08, 2017 Frankfurt, Germany

Article Usage

  • Total views: 12471
  • [From(publication date):
    December-2013 - Aug 23, 2017]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8506
  • PDF downloads :3965
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords