Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type1(anti-HIV-1) medications have helped millions of HIV-1-infected people lead
longer and healthier lives. The goal of HIV-1 treatment is to reduce the number of virions in the body of infected individuals
and to prevent rapid destruction of CD4+ T-lymphocyte cells, thus protecting the immune system. Most of the anti-HIV-1 drugs
in practice are designed using viral reverse transcriptase (HIV-1RT), protease, and integrase as targets. These drugs that inhibit
the activities of HIV-1RT, viral protease, and integrase are therefore known as anti-HIV-1RT, antiprotease, and anti-integrase
molecules, respectively. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved 22 anti-HIV-1 drugs for clinical use. Among the
drugs, most of the nucleoside analogs exhibit clinical complications that pose a threat to chemotherapy. The toxicity of these
molecules arises due to their negative impact on the activities of human mitochondrial chromosomal DNA polymerases. Other
anti-HIV-1 regimens are also reported to cause toxicity. The range of toxicity extends from mild to life-threatening levels. The
prolonged use of zidovudine (AZT) which was first approved in 1987 as a nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor,
has been reported to cause severe hematologic toxicity, including severe anemia, granulocytopenia, and symptomatic myopathy.
Many other drugs that are often used in combination with AZT have similar toxicities. The newer antiretrovirals (ARVs), such as
22,32-dideoxycytidine, 22,32-dideoxyinosine which exhibit analogous mechanisms of action and similar toxicities to AZT. Some
of these ARVs when taken during pregnancy may generate teratogenic effects. The topic of discussion includes a comprehensive
analysis of the existing literature on toxicity of AIDS drugs, their mechanisms of action and possible management strategies.
T.Mounika completed Bachelor?s of pharmacy from S.S.J College of Pharmacy, affiliated to J.N.T.U, Hyderabad and presently pursuing a Master?s
Degree (Second Semester) in the Department of Pharmacology, CMR College of Pharmacy, affiliated to Jawaharlal technological University,
Hyderabad. I have participated in few national level technical symposium.
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