alexa Applications Of Genomics And Future Prospects | 19494
ISSN: 1747-0862

Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine
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2nd International Conference on Genomics & Pharmacogenomics

Krishna Dronamraju
Keynote: J Mol Genet Med
DOI: 10.4172/1747-0862.S1.001
Abstract
Applications of genomics include clinical genetics, disease gene discovery, identifying gene regulatory systems, and Evolutionary analysis. The two areas of paramount interest are (a) vaccine development for preventing infections which are major killers such as the malaria parasites and HIV virus, and (b) cancer genomics. A comprehensive analysis of the cancer genome remains a daunting challenge. There is no single technology at present that will detect all the types of abnormalitydeletions, rearrangements, point mutations, frameshift insertions, amplifications, imprinting, and epigenetic changes implicated in cancer. Microarrays and gene chip analysis, however, are beginning to unveil some key genomic drivers. Many clinical trials now include genomic profiles of cancer patients as prognostic and diagnostic indicators, which are playing an increasing role in defining pharmacogenomics. Genomic profiles are useful in monitoring where and how the cancer genome has been hit during molecularly targeted therapies. Data-Mining and sharing these data should eventually help to better integrate the genotypic and phenotypic changes that occur in a during cancer?s progression. Genetic variability revealed in the newly sequenced malaria genomes indicates new challenges in efforts to eradicate the parasite, but also offers a clearer and more detailed picture of its genetic composition, providing an initial roadmap in the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines to combat malaria. Recent studies have focused attention on Plasmodium vivax, a species of malaria that afflicts humans and the most prevalent human malaria parasite outside Africa, and Plasmodium cynomolgi, a close relative that infects Asian Old World monkeys. However, what has been revealed is both bad and good. The bad news is that there is significantly more genetic variation in P. vivax than what had been expected, which increases the likelihood of the pathogen evading whatever drugs and vaccines we may use. The good news is that we have gained greater knowledge of the challenges we will be facing and we can move forward with more confidence in designing more effective remedies. Research at The Sanger Institute in the U.K. has produced the world?s largest resource of malaria parasite genomic data, comprising over 3,000 genomes to date. The level of detail, both genomic and geographical, afforded by this project has enabled new levels of genetic analysis. The relationship between clinical research and genomics is at a turning point in malaria, offering much promise for future advances.
Biography
Krishna Dronamraju is a geneticist and author of many books in genetics, medical genetics and history of science. He worked with Victor McKusick in medical genetics at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and recently edited, with Clair Francomano(eds), Victor McKusick and the History of Medical Genetics, published by Springer, New York, 2012. He was a member of the U.S. Presidential delegation led by President Bill Clinton to India to promote cooperation in science and technology in 2000. He served on the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, and the National Advisory Committee of the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture. He is a visiting Professor of the University of Paris, and an Honorary Research Fellow of University of London. His books include: Haldane, Mayr and Beanbag Genetics, Malaria: Genetic and Evolutionary Aspects, Infectious Disease and Host-Pathogen Evolution, The History and Development of Human Genetics, and (ed) Selected Genetic Papers of JBS Haldane.
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