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eurotoxicity is any adverse effect on the structure and function of the
central and/or peripheral nervous system by biological, chemical
or physical agent. Biomarkers are measurements of pharmacological
and physiological parameters or that of specific biochemical in the
body, for measuring the progress of disease or efficiency of treatment.
Identifying novel biomarkers for neurotoxicity is imperative for
effective treatment of most complex neurological disorders. This is
hindered by unique cellular and phenotypic complexities of brain. Mere
identification of novel biomarkers would yield scientific and clinical
correlates for diagnosis, provide insight into disease mechanism and
address current shortcomings in therapeutics of neurological disorders
affecting millions worldwide.
Genomic, proteomic and metabolomic technologies help in
overcoming obstacles for biomarker identification resulting in earlier
and more specific diagnoses, identification and validation of therapeutic
targets and monitoring treatment effects. With the ?omic? strategy,
biomarkers are identified at all levels of biology namely, DNA, RNA,
proteins and small molecules.
Many constituents of cerebrospinal fluid have been suggested as
markers for brain dysfunction, e.g. Microglial antibodies and paired
helical filaments in Alzheimer?s disease. Auto antibodies to glial fibrillary
acidic protein and synaptic protein can be detected at 2ng/L in serum,
even before appearance of conventional indices of neurotoxicity such
as behavioral and histopathological changes. Thus early subclinical
brain damage can be assessed with novel biomarkers. Bioinformatics
and biostatistic tools will play an important role in compiling this huge
data. Thus making meaningful advances in biomarker discovery and
neurological disorders will not be a devastating disease any more.
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