alexa Chronic Effects Of Fatty Acids On Insulin Secretion And Metabolic Profile In Mouse And Human Pancreatic Islets
ISSN: 2155-6156

Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism
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5th World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism
November 03-05, 2014 Embassy Suites Las Vegas, USA

Nicolai M Doliba
ScientificTracks Abstracts: J Diabetes Metab
DOI: 10.4172/2155-6156.S1.026
Chronic hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are characteristics of type 2 diabetes and they are known to cause β-cell dysfunction termed ?glucolipotoxicity?. The expression of PGC-1α is elevated in islets from different animal models of diabetes but its mechanistic role in β-cell glucolipotoxicity remains unclear. This study was to evaluate the interconnection between expressions of PGC-1α, mitochondrial energy metabolism, calcium signaling and insulin secretion (IS) in mouse and human islets. To duplicate glucolipotoxicity in vitro, islets were cultured for 3 days with 0.5 mMpalmitic acid (PA) at 1% BSA and different concentrations of glucose: 10, 16 and 25 mM. The inhibitory effect of PA on IS was evident at 16 mM in mouse and human islets. Despite inhibition of IS by PA, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in response to glucose or FCCP was unchanged in PA treated mouse islets, suggesting that inhibition of IS by PA occurred at steps downstream of ATP production. Gene expression of PGC-1α, PPAR-γ, CPT-1A, Cyt c and Cox5b were increased and expression of GCK was decreased after mouse and human islets exposure to 16 mM glucose and 0.5 mM PA. Increasing the glucose to 25 mM in the presence of PA led to greater inhibition of IS and the gene expression profile exhibited the following changes: decreased expression of PGC-1α, slightly increased expression of CPT-1A with no changes in expression of PPAR-γ, Cyt c, Cox5b or GCK. These changes were associated with increased basal OCR and decreased stimulation of OCR by glucose but normal response to FCCP. The inhibition of IS was correlated with impaired glucose-stimulated calcium influx. We conclude that the phenotypic manifestation of glucolipotoxicity depends characteristically on the glucose concentration: at 16 mM glucose islets exhibit an adaptive response as evidenced by increased expression of PGC-1α, PPAR-γ, CPT-1A and Cox5b but this adaptation collapses at 25 mM glucose.
Nicolai M Doliba is a Research Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics at Smilow Center for Translation Research, Perelman School of Medicine, Universityof Pennsylvania. His research focuses on the role of bioenergetics, ion transport and metabolic coupling factors in nutrient- and drug-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells at normal conditions and during diabetes mellitus.
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