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|Yusuf L Henuk, Jonatan Ginting, Hasanuddin, Rosmayati and Darma Bakti|
|University of Sumatera Utara, Indonesia|
|ScientificTracks Abstracts: J Plant Pathol Microbiol|
|Many crops that supply carbohydrates grow well in Indonesia, including cereals (rice, maize, sorghum, foxtailmillet), tubers (cassava, sweetpotato, potato, arrowroot, canna), and tree crops (sago, breadfruit, banana). The variety of staple foods consumed by Indonesians is diverse. During the period 2004–2013, four main staple crops in Indonesia were rice (53.5% of diet), cassava (22.2% of diet), maize (18.9% of diet), and potatoes (4.99% of diet). In 2012, for example, Indonesian rice consumption was about 130 kg/person/year, higher than the average world level of 60 kg/person/year. Over the last ten years, except for DKI Jakarta, all provinces increased cereal production from 2004–2013. The largest increase was in Kepulauan Riau (11.43%) and Gorontalo (10.51%). Exports of major food commodities are concentrated in few countries. For maize dan rice, in particular, the global export market is largely dominated by top five exporters on globally trade grains, i.e. The United States, Argentina, Brazil, France, China and Thailand, Vietnam, India, The United States, Pakistan, respectively. Indonesia has achieved the MDG hunger target, by reducing the proportion of undernourished people from 19.7% of the population in 1990–92 to 8.7% in 2012–2014. The poultry industry consumes approximately 83% of Indonesia’s animal feed. Aquaculture consumes 11% and the remaining 6% is consumed by cattle and swine. On average, livestock feed is composed of corn (50%), soybean meal (15-20%), corn gluten meal (3%), CPO (2%), fish meal (5%), rice bran (15%), wheat pollard (8%), and premix (0.6%). Indonesian feed millers are heavily reliant on imported feed ingredients from the top five exporters on globally trade grains above. Beef alone accounted for about 19% with 2.50 kg/capita/year of Indonesia’s total meat consumption compared to broiler of 55% with 3.751 kg/capita/year, native chickens of 11% with 0.528 kg/capita/year, pork of 8% with 0.156 kg/capita/year, goat of 7% with 0.111 kg/capita/year, and others species 1% with its total per capita meat consumption from livestock in Indonesia is still lower compared to many countries and they generally increase with higher income. Rank and score of global food index of Indonesia from 2012 to 2015 as follows: 64, 66, 72, 74 and 46.8, 45.6, 46.5, 46.7 respectively. Indonesia is in “Moderate Environment” in 2016 with overall rank 13/23 in Asia and Pacific by income level with overall score of 50.6/100.|
Yusuf L Henuk is a Professor in the Faculty of Agriculture at University of Sumatera Utara (USU), Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia. He received a Bachelor’s degree (S1: ‘Sarjana’) from the University of Nusa Cendana in Kupang-Indonesia in 1984. He obtained Master’s in Rural Science (MRurSc) from the University of New England in 1995 and continued Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) from the University of Queensland in Australia from 1998–2001. He was a prolific Writer and has published many articles in either national or international journals within the field of Agriculture and mainly Animal Sciences. He also participated in many national and international seminars, e.g., The 25th World Poultry Congress (“Invited Speaker”: China National Convention Center, Beijing, 05-09 September, 2016); and the 1st Public Health International Conference (PHICo), Faculty of Public Health, University of Sumatera Utara (“Invited Speaker”: Grandhika Hotel, December 01-02, 2016).
Email: [email protected]
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