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lcoholism is a chronic relapsing behavioral disorder characterized by compulsive and excessive drinking. Dysfunction in
dopaminergic transmission has been associated with craving for ethanol and seems to influence withdrawal symptoms.
Ethanol consumption induces a dose-dependent release of DA in the nucleus accumbens through its effects on opioid or
(GABA)-A receptors. A decrease in chronic ethanol intake may result from an increase in the tonus of the dopaminergic
mesolimbic system. Ethanol withdrawal reduces mesolimbic DA release. Moreover, non-dopaminergic neuro adaptations are
involved in the behavioral changes that define addiction. The enzyme creatine kinase (CK) could be a possible candidate for
alcohol turmoil related to DA dysregulation.CK is found mainly in the skeletal muscles, heart and brain. Its substantial elevation
usually indicates damage or stress in one or more of these organs. In previous studies we already reported significant differences
in CK activity in affective disorders. The comorbidity of depression and alcohol syndromes was also widely described. Further,
we examined potential differences in serum CK level in patients with alcohol dependence, withdrawal and delirium tremens. We
found low normal CK activity for the alcohol dependence, higher for alcohol withdrawal and the highest for DT's. Peripheral
CK activity of patients that were admitted during each of the three phases showed similar pattern. The activity of CK in serum
obtained freshly on inpatient admission can distinguish the clinical states of alcohol dependence, alcohol withdrawal and delirium
tremens. The biological and clinical significance of CK for alcohol syndromes and for other addictions will be discussed.
Michael Segal was born in Romania (1957) has accomplished MD studies at Carol Davilla Faculty of Medicine of Bucharest. In Israel (since 1986) he completed the psychiatric residence in Rambam Hospital in Haifa and Flugelman's Mental Health Medical Center in Acre. Senior psychiatrist since 1995 actually occupies clinical positions in psychiatric ward and polyclinics of psychiatric hospital of Shaar Menache. He is a Lecturer of Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine affiliated to Technion Institute of Technology in Haifa. He has published a number of research studies in valuated psychiatric journals. His main fields of interest are in biological markers of mental disturbances (schizophrenia, affective disorders, and addictions) and in the study of PTSD.
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