alexa Crystallography Of The Corneal Nanonipple Structure On Butterfly Eyes | 66112
ISSN: 2169-0022

Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering
Open Access

OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

8th International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science and Engineering

Uwe Erb
University of Toronto, Canada
Keynote: J Material Sci Eng
DOI: 10.4172/2169-0022-C1-063
Abstract
One specific type of corneal nano-nipple arrays found on many insect compound eyes are hexagonally arranged protrusions in the shape of inverted paraboloids. Prior studies have focused on the anti-reflection properties of the eyes due to the nano-nipple structure, which depends mainly on the shape of individual nipples. However, in the past, little attention was given to the details of the arrangement of nano-nipples, which was qualitatively described as consisting of multiple domains. In the current study, remarkable defect structures were found through structural analysis using crystallographic principles. The investigated species is the Mourning Cloak butterfly (Nymphalis antiopa), which is common in North America as well as Europe and Asia. On its corneas, nano-nipples are predominantly in 2-D hexagonal arrangement with an average diameter of 170 nm and an average lattice parameter of 205 nm. An eye with 2 mm in diameter has approximately 10,000 ommatidia and 140 million nipples. However, within the hexagonal structure, there are nipples that deviate from the regular arrangement by having different numbers of Nearest Neighbours (NN); instead of 6 NN required by hexagonal symmetry, about 10% of nano-nipples have 5 or 7 NN and are described as 5- and 7-fold coordination defects (disclinations), respectively. Since the 5- and 7-fold disclinations usually occur adjacent to each other, they are collectively referred to as 5-7 defects. An individual 5-7 defect pair affects the nipple structure in a similar fashion as a dislocation in 2-D crystals. Furthermore, the 5-7 defects are not arranged randomly; instead, they show a strong preference to align in rows to divide the domains of nano-nipples like grain boundaries between crystals. The distribution of the domain sizes is log-normal, and analysis of the orientations of nipple domains indicate no preferred orientation. This intriguing structure will be discussed in reference to protrusion formation theories by i) microvilli secretion and ii) reaction-diffusion controlled coating development, respectively. Finally, a comparison will be presented with similar structural defects found in man-made 2-D materials such as self-assembled monolayers or graphene.
Biography

Uwe Erb received his PhD in Materials Science in 1980 from the University of Saarland (Germany). He currently is a Professor in Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Toronto. He is an Inventor on 18 patents related to the synthesis of nanostructured materials by electrochemical methods, and has authored about 250 scientific publications in the field of nanomaterials. He and his research team were the first to synthesize fully dense nanostructured materials in 1985, and developed numerous industrial applications for these materials with various companies. More recently, his research has been broadened to include bio-inspired nanostructures.

Email: [email protected]

image PDF   |   image HTML
 

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

+1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]e.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
Leave Your Message 24x7