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Obesity as well as other chronic diseases or other non-communicable diseases (NCD) are of multifactorial nature and
typically begins during childhood and adolescence. Its etiology is the result of a complex interaction between genetics and
the environment, where unbalanced diets play a very important role, even, during lactation and childhood. In the last 10 to 15
years there have been carried out several international projects to validate the hypothesis that health of the adult is base on the
early life nutrition. However there is a big debate about how diet determines health status later and how it is related to macro
or micronutrients, microbioma or genome. The objective of the keynote is to overview and present data that support the idea
that some specific macronutrients such as protein can modulate gens from tissues to produce a bigger demand of energy intake
or how tissues are affected to trigger adverse metabolic and health consequences. Other important factor is how to correlate
the intake of baby food with the highest fat and protein percentage that produces a down-regulation of more or less number
of genes. Such an effect should be further studied in human infants to learn more about the composition of beikost on early
programming. Finally, the debate about infant development and how influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring
with the suggestion that an early nutrition programming may have an epigenetic component such as DNA methylation or
histone tail modifications that may provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Finally, since the overweight and
obesity has increased to unexpected levels and if this changed have already taken place, the question is how we can change the
already settled situation. Is there any possibility of rolling back?
Gaspar Ros Berruezo is a Professor of Human Nutrition and Food Science (including Food Safety) at the University of Murcia (UM), serving this Institution for more than 25 years. He has been Post-Doc Fulbright Scholar from 1989-90 at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville, USA. He is a Project Leader of the VITALIS Centre for Research in Food Science, Human Nutrition and Health in the Mediterranean area, under construction. His research interest is to functional foods and ingredients, the metabolism to nutritional functionality (including bioavailability and omics) for normal growth and development on infants and to prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases or obesity.