Afghanistan is a landlocked country of plains and mountains with a wide range of ecosystems, the natural resources and
associated biological diversity provide the basis of a livelihood for up to 80% of the population, whose directly involved in
agricultural and pastoral activities that form the backbone of the economy. Only 12% of the land area out of 652,089 km2,mainly
in scattered valleys, is suitable for arable farming or horticulture, 46% is under permanent pastures and 39% is mountainous
and remaining 3% is covered by forest, water bodies and urban areas.While for time being food insecurity situation affecting
livelihood.As agriculture / livestock and components of environment has interaction and impacton each other, three decades
of war , instability and environmental changes have been created significant ecological threats to agriculture . War , poverty
,deforestation, desertification , illegal hunting and trade of wild life, soil erosion, urbanization , improper application of pesticides,
land mines, pollution ,droughts, floods, traditional irrigation systems, migration/displacement , tribal disputes mostly on
pastures and water, high prices of agricultural inputs, transportation services caused limitation in number of working animals
,lack of proper policies/laws and its enforcement, importation of dairy and food items with trade dumping policies of neighbor
countries and poppy cultivation .In this situation, food security and sustainable agricultural development will remain a dream.
If Afghanistan is to develop into a vibrant nation with secure sustainable agricultural development, it must first halt ecological
threats to agriculture, which requires national and international efforts and supports through environmental education, public
awareness, poverty alleviating, designing of right polices and enforcement of laws.
Saidajan Attiq Abdiani has completed his BSc at the age of 22 years from Agriculture Faculty of Nangarhar University and MSc studies at the age
of 40 years from Peshawar Agricultural University of Pakistan. He is the Chairman of Horticulture Department of Agriculture faculty of Nangarhar
University and president of Afghanistan National Seed Association, and active member of private sector of Agriculture field.He has published more
than 10 books and papers in reputed journals and serving as professors? association member.
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