Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability and death, mainly in young adults. TBI is classically a model of a
monophasic neuronal lesion, in which brain tissue damage, including neuronal and glial cells injury, results from transfer
of kinetic energy to the brain. Neuronal and axonal damage may result from a direct lesion at the moment of impact. It is logical
to believe that neuronal injury is limited to the acute and subacute phases after the traumatic event, followed by a short time of
subsequent retrograde and anterograde (or wallerian) axonal degeneration. Once this process ends, stabilization of the neuronal
injury would be expected. However, experimental studies have shown that delayed cerebral changes occur after TBI, particularly
demonstrated by progression of cerebral atrophy, proposing a delayed progressive neuronal loss. Delayed neuronal loss after TBI
is similar to other neurodegenerative processes. Studies have shown that TBI victims may have persistent deficits in attention,
memory and some executive functions, even in mild trauma. Recently, Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging has been described
as a promising noninvasive technique to evaluate axonal and neuronal injury secondary to TBI, by using special sequences
with quantitative analysis, such as volumetric measurement, relaxometry, proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MR spectroscopy),
magnetization transfer, diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging (DWI and DTI).
Dr. Mamere is a Radiologist specialized in Diagnostic Neuroradiology, with 12 years of experience in magnetic resonance imaging. Master Scientific
Degree in 2005 at University of Sao Paulo. He is regularly enrolled in the PhD course at University of Sao Paulo, to be finished in June 2012.
Chairman of the Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging at Barretos Cancer Hospital from 2008 to 2010. He performs research in
Neuroradiology using advanced quantitative MR imaging techniques, mainly in patients with brain tumors.
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