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|R Gandhi Gracy, Rashmi M A, Vinutha B K1 and S K Jalali|
|Insecticide resistance is an evolved character of herbivore insects, which pose a serious threat to the agriculture. Recent advancement in molecular sciences and bioinformatics paved a way for better understanding of the important issues such as insecticidal resistance. The present study is aimed to know the evolutionary level of the genes responsible for the insecticidal resistance among important agricultural pests. Cytochrome Oxidase- CY P450 is a metabolic oxidative enzyme, found in almost all the eukaryotes. Over expression and structural changes in the CYP450 proteins contribute for the metabolism of insecticides in the resistance population of insects. This work is mainly done to analyse the cyp-450, AchE enzymes among different insects and their molecular phylogeny relationship. The gene sequences of insecticidal resistance genes such as AchE, Cyp-450 from 10 important insect pests viz., Helicoverpa armigera, Helicoverpa zea, Mamestra brassicae, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera exigua, Acyrthosiphon pisum, Myzus persicae, Chilo suprasalis, Lucinodes orbonalis and Bombyx mandarina have been retrieved from GenBank. Helicoverpa armigera sequences have been used for query to retrieve protein sequences by BlastP. The sequences have been analyzed for their similarity index and aligned using Clastal-W tool. The phylogeny was constructed for all these specimens by using MEGA 5 software. Sequence from Bombyx sp has been used as out group. The phylogeny tree showed that H. armigera is in the top of the clad with recently evolved character compared with other insect pests.|
R Gandhi Gracy has completed her M.Sc. (Agri. Entomology) from TNAU, Coimbatore and at present doing Ph.D. in Agricultural Entomology at UAS-GKVK, Bangalore. She has done 3 months training course on Application of Bioinformatics in Entomological Research at Cornell University , New York, USA.
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