Laboratory medicine plays crucial role in management of Diabetes Mellitus. Biomarkers are used for screening, diagnosis,
monitoring and to detect complications of Diabetes Mellitus. High risk individuals should be screened for prediabetes and
DM with laboratory measures plasma glucose and glycosurea because onset of T2 DM and complications is estimated to occur
4-7 years before clinical diagnosis. New biomarkers hsCRP, adiponectin, apolipoprotein B showed improved prediction of DM
by 14% in women and 21%in men. Plasma glucose estimation from an accredited laboratory is the sole diagnostic criterion
for diagnosis of DM. HbA1C is an accurate, precise measure of retrospective glycemic control that correlates well with risk of
complications. It should be assayed using standard IFCC reference method for calibration. ADA recommends biannual assay
of HbA1C which should be <7% to monitor therapy. Fructosamine marker of glycemic control over last 1-3 weeks is not
recommended routinely. Diabetic dyslipedemia characterized by small dense LDL particles, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL
contributes to cardiovascular disease, needs aggressive treatment. Hence annual lipid profile testing is necessary. One major
area of concern in diabetics is to assess renal function as 35% of type 1 diabetics and 15-60% of T2DM develop nephropathy.
Microalbuminurea measured by Albumin Creatinine ratio in random urine is associated with risk of ESRD and CVD. Annual
testing is recommended to prevent progression of nephropathy by intervention with ACE inhibitors. Noninvasive glucose
monitoring, genetic testing, autoantibodies, insulin, C-peptide are used for research purpose. Clinical laboratory is a vital
component in management of diabetic patients.
Asegaonkar Shilpa M.D. Medical Biochemistry from Marathwada University is working as Asst. Professor since 10 years. She passed course in clinical nutrition. To her credit 1 international, 1 national paper pubished and 3 papers sent for publication. Her presentation on cardiovascular risk factors in CKD selected as guest lecture at National conference of medical biochemists of India. She is a member of Institutional Ethical Committee.
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