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During the last twenty years, nanofluids have shown desirable thermal properties and negligible increase in viscosity when
compared to their base liquids without dispersed nanoparticles. These features have opened the door to a wide range of
engineering applications, such as microelectronics cooling and biomedical applications, such as nanodrug delivery for cancer
therapy. According to the literature, two approaches are commonly used to study the nanofluid heat and fluid flow; namely,
the homogenous (single-phase) approach and the two-phase approach. In most of the two-phase studies, thermal equilibrium
conditions (the same temperature) are considered for the phases which is not usually the case.
This paper numerically assesses the accuracy of using an Eulerian-Eulerian two-phase approach in predicting the dynamics
and heat transfer performance of water-Al2O3 nanofluid flow in rectangular micro-channels heat sinks at different heat fluxes
and nanoparticle concentrations. All the fluid properties are considered to be temperature dependent while those of the solid
particles are constant. In this study, instead of using an overall bulk thermal conductivity, effective thermal conductivity
models based on the kinetic theory of granular flow are used for the solid and liquid phases. The conjugate heat transfer and the
three-dimensional, laminar, incompressible flow of nanofluid are assumed steady. The numerical predictions of the convective
heat transfer coefficient are compared with published experimental data. It was found that using thermal conductivity and
drag models based on kinetic theory with the two-phase model shows better agreement with the experimental reference data
in comparison to the homogeneous single-phase model. The results showed that heat transfer enhancement increases with
increasing both Reynolds number and nanoparticle volume concentration.
Mohamed E Eleshaky has received his PhD from Old Dominion University, VA, USA in 1992 and post-doctoral training at NASA Langley Research Center,
Hampton, VA, USA, in 1993. He was an associate professor at Alexandria University, Egypt. Currently, he is an assistant professor at the College of Technological
Studies, Kuwait. He has published more than 27 journal papers and over 30 conference refereed papers. He served as a scientific committee member of various
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