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Treatment Of Organic And Inorganic Pollutants In Wastewater By Use Of Microorganism | 8461
ISSN:2157-7463

Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
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Treatment of organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewater by use of microorganism

3rd World Congress on Biotechnology

Abhinav K Srivastava and Rachana Singh

Posters: Agrotechnol

DOI: 10.4172/2155-952X.S1.020

Abstract
The term bioremediation has been introduced to describe the process of using biological agents to remove toxic waste from environment. Because of the adaptability of microbes and other biological systems, these can be used to degrade or remediate environmental hazards. Natural organisms, either indigenous or extraneous (introduced), are the prime agents used for bioremediation. The organisms that are utilized vary, depending on the chemical nature of the polluting agents, and are to be selected carefully as they only survive within a limited range of chemical contaminants. The first patent for a biological remediation agent was registered in 1974, being a strain of Pseudomonas putida that was able to degrade petroleum. Examples of aerobic bacteria recognized for their degradative abilities are Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Sphingomonas, Rhodococcus, and Mycobacterium. These microbes have often been reported to degrade pesticides and hydrocarbons, both alkanes and polyaromatic compounds. Many of these bacteria use the contaminant as the sole source of carbon and energy. Anaerobic bacteria are not as frequently used as aerobic bacteria. There is an increasing interest in anaerobic bacteria used for bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in river sediments, dechlorination of the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform. Ligninolytic fungi such as the white rot fungus Phanaerochaete chrysosporium have the ability to degrade an extremely diverse range of persistent or toxic environmental pollutants. Methylotrophs, aerobic bacteria that grow utilizing methane for carbon and energy. The initial enzyme in the pathway for aerobic degradation, methane monooxygenase, has a broad substrate range and is active against a wide range of compounds, including the chlorinated aliphatic trichloroethylene and 1, 2dichloroethane. Therefore, microorganisms represent a promising, largely untapped resource for new environmental biotechnologies. Research continues to verify the bioremediation potential of microorganisms. For instance, a recent addition to the growing list of bacteria that can reduce metals is Geobacter metallireducens, which removes uranium, a radioactive waste, from drainage waters in mining operations and from contaminated groundwater
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